Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-5.1-6.4-3.61.45.79.814.015.312.17.42.8-2.14.3D
Standard Deviation1.52.21.91.30.90.91.00.70.91.01.21.60.9D
Daily Maximum (°C)-1.8-2.8-0.44.39.013.217.218.715.510.65.60.97.5D
Daily Minimum (°C)-8.4-9.9-6.7-1.52.46.310.711.98.64.10.0-5.01.0D
Extreme Maximum (°C)9.98.911.218.222.225.327.827.230.025.015.010.7
Date (yyyy/dd)1979/ 301976/ 021983/ 141997/ 291959/ 271994/ 191956/ 311911/ 051955/ 121955/ 311982/ 051993/ 14
Extreme Minimum (°C)-23.3-26.1-24.1-13.3-6.7-1.13.52.80.0-4.0-11.3-21.2
Date (yyyy/dd)1920/ 241915/ 021986/ 101923/ 011972/ 011914/ 031991/ 011923/ 251914/ 281986/ 271993/ 241984/ 27
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)48.741.857.6118.9115.7127.4112.5118.5125.4143.3127.192.91229.9D
Snowfall (cm)101.981.749.117.42.40.00.00.00.02.221.878.6355.0D
Precipitation (mm)151.6125.2107.5139.1118.6127.4112.5118.6125.4145.2151.2172.21594.6D
Average Snow Depth (cm)355536400000011012D
Median Snow Depth (cm)37553330000000911D
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)475411100000032812D
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)74.267.360.089.885.966.8111.483.896.665.3101.188.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1927/ 021965/ 261996/ 211982/ 291973/ 291968/ 251979/ 171970/ 121984/ 011966/ 301958/ 071968/ 16
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)57.445.736.831.011.40.50.00.02.814.730.543.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1968/ 051957/ 101914/ 311978/ 051972/ 101914/ 041909/ 011909/ 011915/ 261925/ 231911/ 221993/ 30
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)74.267.360.089.885.966.8111.483.896.665.3101.188.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1927/ 021965/ 261996/ 211982/ 291973/ 291968/ 251979/ 171970/ 121984/ 011966/ 301958/ 071968/ 16
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)14218219713013000031898
Date (yyyy/dd)1985/ 291982/ 171982/ 041964/ 061972/ 111959/ 011959/ 011959/ 011959/ 011972/ 201985/ 301993/ 31
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C20.520.115.62.60000002.112.273D
> 0 °C10.58.115.427.43130313130312818.8292.3D
> 10 °C000.061.310.225.6313129.517.82.80.12149.4D
> 20 °C00000.060.814.87.91.300014.9D
> 30 °C0000000000000D
> 35 °C0000000000000D
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C0.820.371.78.426.229.931313028.114.63.6205.8D
<= 2 °C30.828.230.827.313.81.1000.398.822.129.4192.7D
<= 0 °C30.227.829.321.64.80.070002.915.427.4159.4D
< -2 °C28.526.42511.21.100000.397.823123.3D
< -10 °C11.413.68.90.220000000.213.237.5D
< -20 °C0.290.950.29000000000.121.7D
< - 30 °C0000000000000D
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm5.75.17.512.915.616.316.515.316.91814.48.7152.9D
>= 5 mm3.12.33.25.96.66.76.46.47.38.27.14.968.1D
>= 10 mm2.11.423.84.44.43.744.14.44.43.442D
>= 25 mm0.330.470.291.10.941.31.11.11.11.41.30.8711.1D
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm24.520.215.16.40.810.07000.061.19.419.997.6D
>= 5 cm6.95.13.110.1900000.130.945.723D
>= 10 cm2.12.11.20.240.06000000.311.47.4D
>= 25 cm0.270.180.06000000000.200.71D
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm26.221.519.416.21516.316.515.216.718.420.124.2225.6D
>= 5 mm9.26.86.76.76.76.76.56.87.28.38.49.489.3D
>= 10 mm4.53.83.44.14.24.43.94.144.44.74.950.3D
>= 25 mm0.880.740.531.10.941.31.31.11.11.41.21.112.5D
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm30.227.528.4160.6300000.136.120.6129.5D
>= 5 cm27.926.124.27.70.25000002.414.9103.4D
>= 10 cm24.123.822.63.50000001.19.184.2D
>= 20 cm18.220.619.81.500000004.965D
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)33.131.027.225.422.220.618.717.420.124.427.332.325.0A
Most Frequent DirectionWWEEEEEEWWNWNWEA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)11612010910087857474106115106115
Date (yyyy/dd)1968/ 051995/ 131992/ 222001/ 032002/ 042010/ 161979/ 051986/ 251999/ 231999/ 151998/ 162000/ 10
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedWWNWNWNWEEWWWW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)152161148141126104111111120153151157
Date (yyyy/dd)1982/ 181967/ 221976/ 171988/ 201988/ 031986/ 101979/ 051986/ 251986/ 271974/ 201976/ 061985/ 19
Direction of Maximum GustWWWENENWEENSESWW
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h13.910.68.05.82.11.31.01.32.54.69.811.772.6D
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h8.65.94.42.90.80.30.10.40.81.75.26.838.0D
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C0000000000000D
Above 18 °C0000000.42.50.10002.9D
Above 15 °C000000.611.929.54.200046.2D
Above 10 °C00001.421.9124.6165.5688.10.20389.7D
Above 5 °C0.100.14.241.1140.4279.2320.3209.982.715.51.41,095D
Above 0 °C6.33.511.957.8177.4290.2434.2475.3359.9228.396.724.72166.1D
Below 0 °C168.7183.1127.416.50.30000012.385.9594.2D
Below 5 °C317.5320.6270.711319.10.20009.481.2217.61349.2D
Below 10 °C472.4461.7425.6258.8134.431.70.40.18.289.8215.9371.22469.9D
Below 15 °C627.4602.7580.6408.8288160.442.719.194.4236.7365.7526.23952.6D
Below 18 °C720.4687.3673.6498.8381249.8124.285.1180.2329.7455.7619.25004.8D
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Daily8.510.411.313.815.015.415.014.413.410.49.57.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1987/ 221992/ 241985/ 061990/ 291991/ 261991/ 201991/ 031989/ 011990/ 011993/ 021985/ 031992/ 11
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex9.410.310.614.920.927.529.131.232.022.819.011.1
Date (yyyy/dd)1979/ 302000/ 291983/ 141984/ 282001/ 261977/ 281999/ 171989/ 082010/ 022010/ 012000/ 111993/ 14
Days with Humidex >= 300.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.20.10.00.00.00.2C
Days with Humidex >= 350.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0C
Days with Humidex >= 400.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0C
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill (°C)-37-40-38-23-12-3000-11-21-34
Date (yyyy/dd)1993/ 311972/ 231986/ 102003/ 171972/ 111994/ 051966/ 011966/ 011966/ 011976/ 271978/ 271984/ 27
Days with Wind Chill < -207.79.24.60.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.02.123.8C
Days with Wind Chill < -300.61.10.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.11.9C
Days with Wind Chill < -400.00.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.1C
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.40.40.40.60.811.41.61.20.90.70.50.8C
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)80.980.681.284.784.98791.290.588.785.383.582.485.1A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)80.179.378.178.776.979.883.88279.77880.980.679.8C
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa)100.4100.6100.8101101.1100.9101101101.1101100.9100.6100.9C
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)100.9101.1101.3101.4101.5101.4101.4101.5101.5101.5101.3101101.3C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJun 01May 26May 24May 18May 13May 09May 04
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or before indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateOct 07Oct 12Oct 16Oct 21Oct 28Oct 31Nov 08
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days130145148158161167182

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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