Notices

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Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-17.2-14.2-6.92.810.715.917.516.810.83.3-8.1-15.41.3D
Standard Deviation5.13.93.62.31.92.01.21.91.91.54.34.11.4D
Daily Maximum (°C)-12.2-9.5-2.28.217.222.323.623.516.88.3-4.3-10.96.7D
Daily Minimum (°C)-22.0-18.8-11.5-2.64.19.411.310.04.7-1.7-11.7-19.9-4.1D
Extreme Maximum (°C)8.57.017.530.034.539.037.035.636.128.017.07.2
Date (yyyy/dd)1993/ 301992/ 291993/ 231977/ 261986/ 281988/ 051989/ 211961/ 161967/ 051997/ 021978/ 021969/ 01
Extreme Minimum (°C)-47.2-42.2-40.0-30.0-13.3-2.82.2-1.5-13.9-24.0-36.5-43.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 281969/ 021962/ 011979/ 011963/ 031969/ 121964/ 011982/ 271961/ 301991/ 301985/ 291990/ 29
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.50.31.314.639.854.376.752.434.314.81.50.4290.8D
Snowfall (cm)14.310.316.012.23.00.00.00.04.413.215.017.5106.0D
Precipitation (mm)14.510.217.226.742.954.376.752.438.727.916.517.8395.8D
Average Snow Depth (cm)3241000000008220
Median Snow Depth (cm)3140000000009200
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)3844000000009280
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)3.68.19.432.837.866.470.055.241.239.99.44.2
Date (yyyy/dd)1984/ 021963/ 071966/ 161985/ 191984/ 161993/ 241993/ 041995/ 131981/ 251969/ 021983/ 011985/ 22
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)15.214.030.025.015.00.60.00.022.024.417.816.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1969/ 261962/ 031967/ 301990/ 271982/ 291992/ 041961/ 011961/ 011993/ 111984/ 151973/ 121977/ 17
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)15.214.030.032.837.866.470.055.241.239.917.516.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1969/ 261962/ 031967/ 301985/ 191984/ 161993/ 241993/ 041995/ 131981/ 251969/ 021973/ 121986/ 01
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)971091221271000010183069
Date (yyyy/dd)1974/ 291974/ 151974/ 151974/ 011982/ 301962/ 011962/ 011962/ 011973/ 141964/ 271965/ 261966/ 31
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C0.00.120.828.124.129.130.930.625.110.50.600.0159.9D
<= 2 °C30.827.930.725.712.01.20.00.718.724.429.830.7222.6D
<= 0 °C30.827.830.021.56.90.410.00.294.920.029.330.7202.7D
< -2 °C30.727.227.113.92.60.00.00.02.213.626.730.5174.4D
< -10 °C27.422.114.62.70.00.00.00.00.01.914.025.4108.0D
< -20 °C17.112.45.20.410.00.00.00.00.00.185.214.254.6D
< - 30 °C7.03.20.820.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.535.216.8D
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm0.350.180.883.99.411.714.111.78.96.20.810.2568.3D
>= 5 mm0.00.00.061.02.23.64.53.12.11.00.060.017.7D
>= 10 mm0.00.00.00.240.881.42.41.50.630.240.00.07.3D
>= 25 mm0.00.00.00.060.240.180.530.350.250.00.00.01.6D
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm8.97.45.84.10.760.060.00.00.633.57.79.648.4D
>= 5 cm0.470.311.10.530.180.00.00.00.310.820.880.635.3D
>= 10 cm0.060.00.180.290.120.00.00.00.190.470.060.191.6D
>= 25 cm0.00.00.00.060.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.06D
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm9.27.56.57.49.811.714.111.79.19.08.49.9114.2D
>= 5 mm0.470.311.21.62.43.64.53.12.31.91.10.6323.0D
>= 10 mm0.060.00.180.591.11.42.41.50.810.820.060.199.2D
>= 25 mm0.00.00.00.120.240.180.530.350.310.060.00.01.8D
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm31.028.00.00.00.100.00.00.00.01.016.031.00.0
>= 5 cm31.028.00.00.00.100.00.00.00.00.6315.031.00.0
>= 10 cm31.028.00.00.00.100.00.00.00.00.014.531.00.0
>= 20 cm31.028.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.019.00.0
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)5558746155935842531425151
Date (yyyy/dd)1985/ 131978/ 051990/ 131985/ 211970/ 051990/ 291974/ 121970/ 131986/ 251976/ 041974/ 251987/ 07
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedNWSNESWSEESWSWNENWSESE
Evaporation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Lake Evaporation (mm)00004.354.33.82.60000
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Daily9.310.311.214.115.415.816.014.913.010.49.08.1
Date (yyyy/dd)1971/ 301968/ 171953/ 261964/ 301976/ 281970/ 181976/ 011955/ 021972/ 041967/ 141958/ 021973/ 28
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJun 19Jun 04Jun 03May 27May 24May 21May 07
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or before indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateAug 20Sep 03Sep 05Sep 12Sep 15Sep 17Sep 23
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days768994102108114132

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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