Notices

What's New in latest Release from April 7th, 2021:

- Updated Glossary, including Speed of Maximum Gust, and Total Hourly Precipitation

- Updated national and regional climate services offices contacts and prices information

- Addition of station inventory lists for 1981-2010, 1971-2000, and 1961-1990 Normals.

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Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-24.7-24.1-17.9-8.70.77.511.811.06.40.0-8.2-18.3-5.4C
Standard Deviation3.33.54.03.02.41.71.21.01.61.62.63.51.4C
Daily Maximum (°C)-20.1-19.1-12.4-3.55.012.717.416.010.12.8-4.7-14.1-0.8C
Daily Minimum (°C)-29.3-29.1-23.3-13.8-3.62.36.15.92.6-2.9-11.6-22.5-9.9C
Extreme Maximum (°C)5.67.812.114.731.133.132.230.328.318.310.28.3
Date (yyyy/dd)1959/ 171981/ 251999/ 291984/ 281950/ 311999/ 241953/ 141984/ 151968/ 191962/ 061977/ 111957/ 21
Extreme Minimum (°C)-49.8-43.9-43.9-34.1-24.7-8.3-1.6-1.7-7.8-20.0-31.1-43.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1991/ 221972/ 281968/ 081984/ 081992/ 011970/ 011992/ 031950/ 311975/ 291972/ 281956/ 281972/ 28
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.00.80.42.914.542.859.671.469.429.04.00.7295.5C
Snowfall (cm)32.629.332.324.814.56.50.10.04.326.145.036.2251.7C
Precipitation (mm)31.728.931.827.329.049.659.671.473.854.647.836.2541.6C
Average Snow Depth (cm)35374135900001132817C
Median Snow Depth (cm)34374235700000142916C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)37374321300003213317C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)5.16.02.69.222.644.756.444.535.125.020.26.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 181981/ 231990/ 311988/ 061958/ 291974/ 191991/ 161975/ 051950/ 181995/ 152000/ 101951/ 04
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)76.229.531.017.820.820.61.39.425.721.127.436.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1964/ 111975/ 101999/ 111948/ 031987/ 081947/ 121972/ 031972/ 291974/ 301974/ 161999/ 041964/ 02
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)74.929.431.017.827.944.756.444.535.825.027.434.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1964/ 112005/ 271999/ 111948/ 031958/ 301974/ 191991/ 161975/ 051950/ 181995/ 151999/ 041964/ 02
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)185175203218118540014468494
Date (yyyy/dd)1964/ 131963/ 231963/ 311963/ 061985/ 011985/ 011955/ 011955/ 011978/ 241974/ 271964/ 291963/ 31
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C30.727.729.020.37.20.00.00.00.07.524.630.1177.1C
> 0 °C0.290.542.09.723.830.031.031.030.023.55.50.86188.1C
> 10 °C0.00.00.040.466.318.328.928.514.01.20.00.097.7C
> 20 °C0.00.00.00.01.03.99.26.51.10.00.00.021.7C
> 30 °C0.00.00.00.00.00.130.170.040.00.00.00.00.34C
> 35 °C0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C0.00.040.040.836.022.330.630.722.87.40.500.0121.2C
<= 2 °C31.028.231.029.928.816.52.93.014.228.430.031.0274.8C
<= 0 °C31.028.231.029.225.07.70.420.297.223.629.531.0244.0C
< -2 °C31.028.130.827.718.01.60.00.01.617.128.630.7215.1C
< -10 °C30.527.628.319.72.40.00.00.00.01.616.828.6155.6C
< -20 °C27.424.720.97.50.080.00.00.00.00.03.920.1104.5C
< - 30 °C16.515.07.30.210.00.00.00.00.00.00.06.245.2C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm0.080.380.582.16.412.514.718.017.78.92.00.5783.9C
>= 5 mm0.00.040.00.041.02.84.15.04.32.00.220.019.4C
>= 10 mm0.00.00.00.00.171.11.22.01.70.570.090.06.8C
>= 25 mm0.00.00.00.00.00.040.210.130.330.040.00.00.75C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm15.512.914.910.88.13.50.130.082.413.217.115.7114.3C
>= 5 cm1.91.91.61.60.630.420.00.00.171.63.12.014.9C
>= 10 cm0.460.170.540.380.130.080.00.00.080.260.650.573.3C
>= 25 cm0.00.080.040.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.040.040.20C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm15.413.014.912.212.414.014.818.018.918.917.515.6185.6C
>= 5 mm1.71.91.41.81.83.34.15.04.53.93.22.034.4C
>= 10 mm0.420.210.500.380.381.31.22.01.80.830.830.5710.4C
>= 25 mm0.00.080.040.00.00.040.210.130.380.040.040.041.0C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm31.028.231.029.312.91.40.00.00.299.726.331.0201.0C
>= 5 cm31.028.231.028.48.80.630.00.00.03.421.230.8183.4C
>= 10 cm31.028.231.026.76.80.380.00.00.00.8715.529.2169.6C
>= 20 cm26.625.729.821.64.20.210.00.00.00.07.319.6134.9C
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)14.615.015.415.514.714.512.612.613.914.715.813.914.4A
Most Frequent DirectionSWSWWWWNNWWWSWSWWA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)10989977177807484858510197
Date (yyyy/dd)1964/ 111975/ 101974/ 251966/ 041963/ 241958/ 081960/ 311960/ 141974/ 301986/ 251973/ 171957/ 22
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedNWWNESWWWSNWNSW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)161124137152102124100103145130127129
Date (yyyy/dd)1975/ 201975/ 101974/ 251995/ 261992/ 161993/ 281979/ 161967/ 161974/ 301984/ 291973/ 171973/ 23
Direction of Maximum GustWWWSESWNESWWNWNN
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h3.02.62.21.41.21.00.60.81.51.22.72.020.3C
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h1.30.90.60.20.40.30.10.20.60.50.80.66.4C
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C000000.10000000.1C
Above 18 °C000001.53.51.90.30007.2C
Above 15 °C00000.25.415.110.31.500032.5C
Above 10 °C00003.528.177.960.812.50.100182.8C
Above 5 °C0000.519.396211.2186.364.64.200582.2C
Above 0 °C00.30.79.875.3225.5365.2340.7191.645.12.50.11256.9C
Below 0 °C766.1680.3554.4270.353.50.3000.546.8246.3577.83196.3C
Below 5 °C921.1821708.7411152.520.810.623.5160.9393.9732.74347.6C
Below 10 °C1076.1962.1863.7560.4291.7102.822.630.1121.4311.8543.8887.75774.2C
Below 15 °C1231.11103.11018.7710.4443.4230.2114.9134.6260.4466.7693.81042.77,450C
Below 18 °C1324.11187.81111.7800.4536.2316.3196.3219.2349.1559.7783.81135.78520.4C
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Daily7.59.611.214.515.316.615.814.913.210.47.86.3
Date (yyyy/dd)1981/ 291972/ 281982/ 291980/ 301975/ 271975/ 291970/ 131974/ 151977/ 041970/ 021971/ 021975/ 04
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex5.06.311.714.427.538.937.933.232.219.610.35.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1959/ 171981/ 251999/ 291984/ 282005/ 261967/ 291957/ 261996/ 201968/ 191970/ 101977/ 112010/ 02
Days with Humidex >= 300.00.00.00.00.00.30.70.70.00.00.00.01.7A
Days with Humidex >= 350.00.00.00.00.00.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.1A
Days with Humidex >= 400.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill (°C)-60-58-55-46-31-13-6-6-12-33-43-56
Date (yyyy/dd)1957/ 141990/ 161986/ 091994/ 011972/ 011963/ 011990/ 011971/ 241978/ 291986/ 251956/ 281984/ 26
Days with Wind Chill < -2029.726.926.113.90.50.00.00.00.00.310.425.1132.8A
Days with Wind Chill < -3025.622.517.32.90.00.00.00.00.00.01.716.186.2A
Days with Wind Chill < -4015.513.86.70.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.05.641.7A
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.10.10.20.30.50.7110.80.50.30.20.5A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)66.867.270.67777.377.480.48585.784.481.873.977.3A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)64.361.762.766.764.659.358.563.367.473.977.471.966A
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa)100.5100.8101.1101.2101100.6100.5100.5100.5100.7100.5100.6100.7A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)101101.3101.6101.7101.5101.1100.9100.9101101.1101101.1101.2A
Radiation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Radiation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Global - RF1 (MJ/m2)641523484985565543942641426543
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2)511192732333427201363
Date (yyyy/dd)1977/ 311978/ 281973/ 311982/ 281977/ 291977/ 211976/ 041977/ 021977/ 031976/ 011982/ 011977/ 06
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
< 1 km14.79.79.34.93.84.143.53.52.95.8975.3C
1 to 9 km149.6132.9124.1102.874.751.742.543.547.286.6126.3129.11,111C
> 9 km579.7534.9610.6612.3665.5664.3697.4696.9669.3654.5587.9605.97579.3C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
0 to 2 tenths218.5200215.5157.381.882.799.293.765.762.297.8190.61,565C
3 to 7 tenths152.9130.9145.9118.4111130.4164.1158.9112.994.1100.9139.81,560C
8 to 10 tenths372.6346.6382.6444.3551.2506.9480.8491.4541.5587.7521.3413.65640.5C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost Jun 18 C
Average Date of First Fall Frost Sept 09 C
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 82 Days C
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJul 06Jun 30Jun 28Jun 25Jun 18Jun 15Jun 07
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or before indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateAug 18Aug 30Sep 02Sep 07Sep 12Sep 15Sep 24
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days47626773798898

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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