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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why are climate normals important?

Climate Normals and Averages are used to summarize or describe the average climatic conditions of a particular location. "Climate averages", "Climate means" or "Climate normals" are all interchangeable terms. They refer to arithmetic calculations based on observed climate values for a given location over a specified time period. Climate normals are often used to classify a region's climate and make decisions for a wide variety of purposes involving basic habitability, agriculture and natural vegetation, energy use, transportation, tourism, and research in many environmental fields. Normals are also used as a reference for seasonal monitoring of climate temperature and precipitation for basic public interest, and for monitoring drought or forest fires risk. Climate normals are frequently used for climate change adaptation planning.

2. What is the publication plan for the 1991-2020 Canadian normals?

The production of the 1991-2020 climate normals is currently underway. They will be published in five phases for approximately 450 locations, with targeted completion in summer 2024.

  • Phase 1 – 89 locations, 87 elements
  • Phase 2 – addition of 55 elements for Phase 1 locations
  • Phase 3 – 100-150 locations nationally, all elements
  • Phase 4 – 100-150 locations nationally, all elements
  • Phase 5 – 100-150 locations nationally, all elements

Consult Annex 1 for the list of locations, Annex 2 for the list of elements.

3. My location is not listed, will you be publishing additional locations?

At this time, there are no plans to generate the normals for additional locations.

4. What is different about the production of the 1991-2020 Canadian normals compared to previous sets of Canadian normals?

In previous editions, the climate normals were calculated using data from a single station, whereas this set of normals uses composite stations with at least 15 years of data between 1991 and 2020. Composite stations are comprised of one or more stations operated by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) or its partners, where data from individual stations are joined together to create a 30-year data series for a given location. This is also the first set that uses automated station data. Previously, only staffed reporting station data was used.

5. I have technical questions about the Normals, who do I contact?

For questions about the normals, you can contact us via the feedback page or by writing to the regional climate services office corresponding to your region of interest.

Region Email
Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Labradorclimatatlantique-climateatlantic@ec.gc.ca
Quebec, Ontarioclimatcentre-climatecentral@ec.gc.ca
British Columbia, Yukon, Prairies, Northwest Territories, Nunavutclimatouest-climatewest@ec.gc.ca
6. I have questions about climate change, who do I contact?

For questions on using climate normals to help understand climate change, please complete this web form or contact ccsc-cccs@ec.gc.ca

ANNEX 1
Phases 1 & 2 Locations List
Province or Territory Location
AlbertaBANFF
COLD LAKE
CORONATION
EDMONTON (AIRPORT)
FORT MCMURRAY
HIGH LEVEL
MEDICINE HAT
SLAVE LAKE
British ColumbiaDEASE LAKE
ESTEVAN POINT
FORT NELSON
KAMLOOPS
PORT HARDY
QUESNEL
SANDSPIT
SQUAMISH
TATLAYOKO LAKE
VICTORIA (UNIVERSITY)
WARFIELD
ManitobaCHURCHILL
DAUPHIN
LYNN LAKE
THE PAS
THOMPSON
New BrunswickCHARLO
EDMUNDSTON
MIRAMICHI
Newfoundland and LabradorCARTWRIGHT
GANDER
GOOSE
NAIN
Northwest TerritoriesFORT SIMPSON
FORT SMITH
HAY RIVER
INUVIK
NORMAN WELLS
PAULATUK
SACHS HARBOUR
ULUKHAKTOK/HOLMAN
Nova ScotiaDEBERT
NAPPAN
PARRSBORO
SYDNEY
YARMOUTH
NunavutALERT
ARVIAT
BAKER LAKE
CAMBRIDGE BAY
KINNGAIT/CAPE DORSET
EUREKA
GJOA HAVEN
SANIRAJAK/HALL BEACH
IQALUIT
KUGAARUK
KUGLUKTUK
POND INLET
RESOLUTE BAY
OntarioATIKOKAN
DELHI
EGBERT
GERALDTON
HARROW
KAPUSKASING
LONDON
OTTAWA (AIRPORT)
RIDGETOWN
SIOUX LOOKOUT
TORONTO (CITY)
QuebecBAGOTVILLE
FORET MONTMORENCY
ILES DE LA MADELEINE
KUUJJUAQ
LA GRANDE RIVIERE
LA POCATIERE
MANIWAKI
NATASHQUAN
PARENT
SEPT-ILES
SaskatchewanBUFFALO NARROWS
ESTEVAN
HUDSON BAY
ISLAND FALLS
LA RONGE
NORTH BATTLEFORD
PRINCE ALBERT
SWIFT CURRENT
YukonDAWSON
OLD CROW
WATSON LAKE
WHITEHORSE
Phases 3-5 Locations List
Province or Territory Location
AlbertaBRETON
BROOKS
CALGARY (AIRPORT)
CAMPSIE
CAMROSE
CARWAY
CLARESHOLM
DRUMHELLER EAST
EDMONTON (CITY)
EDSON
ESTHER 1
FABYAN
FORESTBURG PLANT SITE
FORT CHIPEWYAN
FORT SASKATCHEWAN
GARDEN RIVER
GRANDE PRAIRIE
JASPER
LAC LA BICHE
LETHBRIDGE
LLOYDMINSTER
MILK RIVER
NORDEGG
ONEFOUR
PEACE RIVER
PINCHER CREEK
QUEENSTOWN
RED DEER
RED EARTH
SUNDRE
VAUXHALL
VEGREVILLE
WHITECOURT
British ColumbiaABBOTSFORD
ADDENBROKE ISLAND
AGASSIZ
ATLIN
BELLA COOLA
BLUE RIVER
BOAT BLUFF
BONILLA ISLAND
BURNS LAKE DECKER LAKE
CAMPBELL RIVER
CAPE BEALE LIGHT
CLINTON
COMOX
CRANBROOK
CRESTON
DAWSON CREEK
DRYAD POINT
FORT ST. JOHN
GOLDEN
HOLLAND ROCK
KELOWNA
LANGARA ISLAND
LYTTON
MACKENZIE
NAKUSP
NELSON
OSOYOOS
PEMBERTON
PENTICTON
PITT MEADOWS
PLEASANT CAMP
PRINCE GEORGE
PRINCETON
REVELSTOKE
SALMON ARM
SATURNA CAPMON
SMITHERS
SPARWOOD
STEWART
TERRACE
VANCOUVER (HARBOUR)
VANCOUVER (AIRPORT)
VICTORIA (CITY)
VICTORIA (AIRPORT)
WILLIAMS LAKE
ManitobaBERENS RIVER
BRANDON
CYPRESS RIVER
ELKHORN 2 EAST
EMERSON
FLIN FLON
GILLAM
GIMLI
GRAND RAPIDS HYDRO
HODGSON 2/3
INDIAN BAY
ISLAND LAKE
MAFEKING
MELITA
MORDEN
NORWAY HOUSE
PINAWA
PORTAGE SOUTHPORT
ROBLIN
WINNIPEG (AIRPORT)
New BrunswickALMA/FUNDY PARK
AROOSTOOK
BAS CARAQUET
BATHURST
BOUCTOUCHE
DOAKTOWN
FREDERICTON (AIRPORT)
GRAND MANAN
KOUCHIBOUGUAC
MISCOU ISLAND
MONCTON
POINT LEPREAU
SAINT JOHN (AIRPORT)
ST. LEONARD
ST. STEPHEN
SUSSEX/FOUR CORNERS
UPSALQUITCH LAKE
WOODSTOCK/NEWBRIDGE
Newfoundland and LabradorDUNVILLE/ARGENTIA
BADGER
BAY D'ESPOIR GEN STN
BONAVISTA
BURGEO
BURNT POND
CAPE RACE
CHURCHILL FALLS
CORNER BROOK
DANIELS HARBOUR
DEER LAKE
ENGLEE
FEROLLE POINT
HARBOUR BRETON
HOPEDALE
LA SCIE
LETHBRIDGE
MARY'S HARBOUR
MIDDLE ARM
PORT AUX BASQUES
SAGLEK
SOPS ARM WHITE BAY
ST. ANTHONY
ST JOHN'S (AIRPORT)
ST JOHN'S (WEST)
ST LAWRENCE
STEPHENVILLE
TWILLINGATE
WABUSH
WHITBOURNE
Northwest TerritoriesAKLAVIK
CAPE PARRY
COLVILLE LAKE
DELINE
FORT GOOD HOPE
FORT LIARD
FORT MCPHERSON
FORT PROVIDENCE
FORT RELIANCE
LIVERPOOL BAY
MOULD BAY
PELLY ISLAND
TUKTOYAKTUK
WHATI
WRIGLEY
YELLOWKNIFE (AIRPORT)
Nova ScotiaBEAVER ISLAND
BRIDGEWATER
BRIER ISLAND
CARIBOU POINT
CHETICAMP
COLLEGEVILLE
GRAND ETANG
GREENWOOD
HALIFAX (AIRPORT)
HART ISLAND
INGONISH BEACH
KEJIMKUJIK
NORTH MOUNTAIN
PORT HAWKESBURY
SABLE ISLAND
SHEARWATER
ST PAUL ISLAND
TATAMAGOUCHE
UPPER STEWIACKE
WATERVILLE CAMBRIDGE
WESTERN HEAD
NunavutALERT
BREVOORT ISLAND
BROUGHTON ISLAND
CLYDE RIVER
CORAL HARBOUR
CROKER RIVER
DEWAR LAKES
GRISE FIORD
HAT ISLAND
IGLOOLIK
LUPIN
NAUJAAT/REPULSE BAY
PANGNIRTUNG
QIKIQTARJUAQ
RANKIN INLET
SHEPHERD BAY
TALOYOAK
WHALE COVE
OntarioARMSTRONG
BANCROFT
BIG TROUT LAKE
BROCKVILLE
BURLINGTON PIERS
CENTREVILLE
CHAPLEAU
COBOURG
COLLINGWOOD
CORNWALL
DRUMMOND CENTRE
EARLTON
ELORA
ERIEAU
FORT ERIE
FORT FRANCES
GODERICH/SALTFORD
GORE BAY
HALIBURTON 3
HAMILTON
KEMPTVILLE
KENORA
KILLARNEY
KINGSTON
KINGSVILLE
KIRKLAND LAKE
LAGOON CITY
LANSDOWNE HOUSE
MOOSONEE
MOUNT FOREST
MUSKOKA
NEW GLASGOW
NORTH BAY
OSHAWA
OTTAWA (CITY)
PEAWANUCK
PETAWAWA
PETERBOROUGH
PICKLE LAKE
POINT PETRE
RED LAKE
SARNIA
SAULT STE MARIE
STRATHROY-MULLIFARRY
SUDBURY
THUNDER BAY
TIMMINS/VICTOR POWER
TORONTO BUTTONVILLE (AIRPORT)
TORONTO (ISLAND)
TORONTO PEARSON (AIRPORT)
TRENTON
UDORA
VINELAND
KITCHENER/WATERLOO
WAWA
WELLAND-PELHAM
WIARTON
WINDSOR
WINDSOR RIVERSIDE
Prince Edward IslandALLISTON
CHARLOTTETOWN (AIRPORT)
EAST POINT
ELMWOOD
NEW GLASGOW
NORTH CAPE
MONTICELLO/ST.PETERS
SUMMERSIDE
QuebecANGERS
ARTHABASKA
BAIE-COMEAU
BARRAGE TEMISCAMINGUE
BEAUSEJOUR
BONNARD
CAP-CHAT
CAP-MADELEINE
CAP-TOURMENTE
CAUSAPSCAL
CHAPAIS
CHARTERIS
COATICOOK
DRUMMONDVILLE
FLEURY
FORTIERVILLE
FRELIGHSBURG
GASPE
GRANBY
GRANDES-BERGERONNES
INUKJUAK
KUUJJUARAPIK
L'ACADIE
L'ASSOMPTION
LA GRANDE 4
LA TUQUE
LAC EON
LACHUTE
LAUZON
LENNOXVILLE
LONGUE-POINTE-DE-MINGAN
LOURDES DE BLANC SABLON
LUSKVILLE
MATAGAMI
MONT-JOLI
MONTREAL (AIRPORT)
NEW CARLISLE
NICOLET
NORMANDIN
QUEBEC CITY (AIRPORT)
RICHMOND
RIMOUSKI
RIVIERE-DU-LOUP/ST-ANTONIN
ROBERVAL
ROUYN
SAINT MICHEL
SCHEFFERVILLE
SCOTT
SHERBROOKE
ST-ANICET
ST CAMILLE
ST GEORGES
ST LUDGER
STE-FOY
STE LUCIE
ST-JOVITE
SUTTON
THETFORD MINES
TROIS-RIVIERES
VAL-D'OR
SaskatchewanASSINIBOIA
CORONACH
KELLIHER
KEY LAKE
KINDERSLEY
KIPLING
LEADER
MAPLE CREEK
MEADOW LAKE
MELFORT
MOOSE JAW
NIPAWIN
REGINA (AIRPORT)
ROCK POINT
ROSETOWN
SASKATOON (AIRPORT)
STONY RAPIDS
WATROUS
YORKTON
YukonBURWASH
CARMACKS
FARO
HAINES JUNCTION
HOUR LAKE
IVVAVIK NAT. PARK
KOMAKUK BEACH
MACMILLAN PASS
MAYO
MAYO ROAD
MCQUESTEN
OTTER FALLS
PELLY RANCH/FORT SELKIRK
ROCK RIVER
SHINGLE POINT
TAKHINI RIVER RANCH
TESLIN
ANNEX 2
ELEMENT NAME
(extremes are bolded)
Phase
1 2-5
Daily Average (°C)YesYes
Standard DeviationYesYes
Daily Maximum (°C)YesYes
Daily Minimum (°C)YesYes
Maximum Daily Mean (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Minimum Daily Mean (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Extreme Maximum (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Minimum Daily Maximum (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Maximum Daily Minimum (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Extreme Minimum (°C) (LTE)YesYes
Rainfall (mm)NoYes
Snowfall (cm)NoYes
Precipitation (mm)YesYes
Average Snow Depth (cm)NoYes
Median Snow Depth (cm)NoYes
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)NoYes
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) (LTE)NoYes
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) (LTE)NoYes
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) (LTE)YesYes
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) (LTE)NoYes
Days with Freezing Rain/DrizzleYesYes
Days with ThunderstormsYesYes
Days with HailYesYes
Days with Fog/Ice FogYesYes
Days with Smoke/HazeYesYes
Days with Max Temperature <= -10, -20, -30°CNoYes
Days with Max Temperature <= 0°CYesYes
Days with Max Temperature > 0, 10, 20, 30, 35°CYesYes
Days with Max Temperature > 40°CNoYes
Days with Min Temperature > 10, 20°CNoYes
Days with Min Temperature > 0°CYesYes
Days with Min Temperature <= 0, 2°CYesYes
Days with Min Temperature < -2, -10, -20, -30°CYesYes
Days with Min Temperature < -40°CNoYes
Days with Rainfall >= 0.2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100mmNoYes
Days with Snowfall >= 0.2, 5, 10, 25, 40cmNoYes
Days with Precipitation >= 0.2, 5, 10, 25mmYesYes
Days with Precipitation >= 1, 50, 100mmNoYes
Days with Snow Depth >= 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100cmNoYes
Wind Speed (km/h)YesYes
Most Frequent DirectionYesYes
Extreme Hourly Speed (km/h) (LTE)YesYes
Direction of Extreme Hourly Speed (LTE)YesYes
Extreme Gust Speed (km/h) (LTE)YesYes
Direction of Extreme Gust (LTE)YesYes
Days with Wind Speed >= 52, 63km/hNoYes
Days with Wind Gust >= 90km/hNoYes
Degree Days Above 0, 5, 10, 15, 18, 24°CYesYes
Degree Days Below 0, 5, 10, 15, 18°CYesYes
Quintile 1 (Lower Bound)YesYes
Quintile 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (Upper Bound)YesYes
Days with Humidex >= 30, 35, 40NoYes
Extreme Humidex (LTE)NoYes
Days with Wind Chill < -20, -30, -40, -50NoYes
Extreme Wind Chill (LTE)NoYes
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)YesYes
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST, 1500LST (%)NoYes
Average Station Pressure (kPa)YesYes
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)YesYes
Visibility (hours with) <1km, 1-9km, >9kmYesYes
Cloud Amount (hours with) 0-2 tenths, 3-7 tenths, 8-10 tenthsNoYes
Average Date of Last Spring FrostYesYes
Average Date of First Fall FrostYesYes
Average Length of Frost-Free PeriodYesYes
Probability of first temperature in fall <= 0°C, on or before (Date) (10, 25, 33, 50, 66, 75, 90%)YesYes
Probability of last temperature in spring <= 0°C, on or after (Date) (10, 25, 33, 50, 66, 75, 90%)YesYes
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than period (Days) (10, 25, 33, 50, 66, 75, 90%)YesYes
Average Last Snowfall in Spring (date)NoYes
Average First Snowfall in Fall (date)NoYes

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