Documentation for the Digital Archive of Canadian Climatological Data (Surface) Identified By Element

(Version 12; 2012-05-22)


Record Formats

Standard record formats have been adopted for climatological data which are archived at minutely, fifteen minute, hourly, daily or monthly intervals. Each record consists of station identification, date and element number followed by the data repeated for each time interval. The datum for each time interval is recorded as a five (5) digit integer plus a leading sign field and a following flag field. The units and decimal position are implied by the assigned element number.

The five (5) record formats are:

Daily Record of Hourly Data (HLY) - Length 186

   |    STN ID   | YEAR  |MO |DY |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|
   |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
            

This data is repeated 24 times.

Monthly Record of Daily Data (DLY) - Length 233

   |    STN ID   | YEAR  |MO |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|
   |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
            

This data is repeated 31 times.

Annual Record of Monthly Data (MLY) - Length 98

   |    STN ID   | YEAR  |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|
   |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
            

This data is repeated 12 times.

Daily Record of 15 Minute Data (FIF) - Length 691

   |    STN ID   | YEAR  |MO |DY |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|    |FLG|
   |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|    |___|
            

This data is repeated 96 times.

Hourly Record of Minutely Data (MIN) - Length 440

   |    STN ID   | YEAR  |MO |DY |HR |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|  
   |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|    
            

This data is repeated 60 times.

Legend

Abbreviation, field length, field name and data type for data fields used in the standard record formats
Abbreviation Length Field Data Type
STN ID 7 Station Identification alphanumeric
YEAR 4 Year eg 1998 (previously available as 3 characters) numeric
MO 2 Month i.e. 01 = Jan. etc. numeric
DY 2 Day numeric
ELEM 3 Element Number numeric
S 1 Sign '-' = negative
'0' = positive
VALUE 5 Data Value numeric
F 1 Flag alphanumeric
FLG 1 Day Flag alphanumeric

Note: In the daily Record of Hourly Data (HLY), the 24 entries (for each hour) represents the hourly observation (00-23), for elements 071-122, 156, 209-210, 219-230, 260, 262-280 and 311. For all other elements, the entries represent the observation for hours ending 01-24. For example, the hour 12 represents the period between 1101h-1200h. All times are local standard with the exception of Sunshine (element 133) which is local apparent and Radiation (elements 061-068, 169-172) which are local apparent. Note that the values for the Sunshine and Radiation elements are for the hour beginning at that time. For example, hour 12 represents the period between 1200h-1259h. One minute Solar Radiation data (elements 200-208) are also in local apparent time.

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Field Description

Station Identification

This is the climatological listing number which contains province and district designation.

Element Number

An assigned element number uniquely identifies each data type and implies the units and decimal position.

Documentation for each element is organized by record format, unique to the observing frequency (eg. HLY). In addition, a reference has been made to the system under which the data were acquired and quality controlled (eg. HLY01).

Data Value Field

This field records the datum for one time interval. The sign is explicit if negative and implicit if positive. All value fields are initialized to -99999M. If the values are missing for all the time intervals of a record, the record may not be written. However, if the value is available for one time interval within the record, the record will be available with the unknown intervals coded -99999M. In the Monthly Record of Daily Data (DLY), days in excess of the number of days in the month are coded -99999M.

The units and decimal position are determined by the element number. The flag position is used to qualify the value and varies by element number.

The following are examples of data value fields:

Examples of actual value and data value
Actual Value Data Value
-32 estimated -00032E
-8.034 -08034
Trace 000000T
10.2 000102

Day Flag

If the time is uncertain within this record, 'N' will be entered in this field.

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Archive Files

The data are maintained in the archive by system. The various files are identified by the format and system number. The data set name includes a field in the format "fffnn" where:

fff value and description
fff Value Description
HLY Daily Record of Hourly Data
DLY Monthly Record of Daily Data
MLY Annual Record of Monthly Data
FIF Daily Record of Fifteen Minute Data
MIN Hourly Record of Minutely Data
nn value and description
nn Value Description Data Sets
01 HOURLY WEATHER HLY01
01 HOURLY WEATHER - CLOUD LAYERS HLY01.CLD
03 RATE OF RAINFALL HLY03
03 RATE OF RAINFALL - INTENSITIES DLY03
04 CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA DLY04
04 CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA DLY02
04 CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA DLY44
04 CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA MLY04
10 BRIGHT SUNSHINE HLY10
11 SOLAR RADIATION HLY11
11 SOLAR RADIATION MIN11
12 SOIL TEMPERATURE DLY12
13 PAN EVAPORATION DLY13
15 WIND HLY15
21 PRECIPITATION-FISCHER/PORTER FIF21
21 PRECIPITATION-FISCHER/PORTER HLY21
21 PRECIPITATION-FISCHER/PORTER - INTENSITIES DLY21

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Hourly Weather (HLY01) - (Note 38)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY01 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
071 30's of metres   Ceiling   6
072 0.1 km   Visibility   7, 40
073 0.01 kilopascals   Sea Level Pressure    
074 0.1 deg C   Dew Point Temperature    
075 10's of deg (see 156)   Wind Direction - U2A (16 pts) to Dec. 1970   5, 17
156 10's of deg (see 075)   Direction - U2A Anemometer E 17
076 km/h   Wind Speed - U2A E 17
077 .01 Kilopascals   Station Pressure    
078 0.1 deg C   Dry Bulb Temperature    
079 0.1 deg C   Wet Bulb Temperature    
080 %   Relative Humidity    
081 tenths   Total Cloud Opacity    
082 tenths   Total Cloud Amount    
083   1=Yes, 0=No Weather Indicator   1
084   1, 2, 3 Tornado=1 (TOR), Waterspout=2, Funnel Cloud=3   2
085   2, 3 Thunderstorms=2 (T), Heavy Thunderstorms=3 (T+)   2
086   1-3 Rain (R)   2, 3
087   1-3 Rain Showers (RW)   2, 3
088   1-3 Drizzle (L)   2, 3
089   1-3 Freezing Rain (ZR)   2, 3
090   1-3 Freezing Drizzle (ZL)   2, 3
091   1-3 Snow (S)   2, 3
092   1-3 Snow Grains (SG)   2, 3
093   1 Ice Crystals (IC)   2, 24
094   1-3 Ice Pellets (IP)   2, 3
095   1-3 Ice Pellet Showers (IPW)   2, 3
096   1-3 Snow Showers (SW)   2, 3
097   1-3 Snow Pellets (SP)   2, 3
098   1-3 Hail (A)   2, 3
099   1 Fog (F)   2
100   1 Ice Fog (IF)   2, 23
101   1 Smoke (K)   2
102   1 Haze (H)   2
103   1 Blowing Snow (BS)   2
104   1 Blowing Sand (BN)   2
105   1 Blowing Dust (BD)   2
106   1 Dust (D)   2
260   1 Freezing Fog(FZFG)   2, 23
311 Hg (inches of mercury)   Altimeter Setting    
107-110 Lowest Cloud Layer
107 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
108 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
109   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
110 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
111-114 Second Lowest Cloud Layer
111 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
112 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
113   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
114 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
115-118 Third Lowest Cloud Layer
115 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
116 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
117   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
118 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
119-122 Fourth Lowest Cloud Layer
119 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
120 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
121   0-16 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
122 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
219-222 4th Cloud Layer
219 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
220 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
221   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
222 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
223-226 5th Cloud Layer
223 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
224 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
225   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
226 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
227-230 6th Cloud Layer
227 tenths   Opacity G 12, 19, 29
228 tenths   Amount or Condition G 12, 13, 19, 29
229   0-28 Type G 4, 12, 19, 29
230 30's of metres   Height G 12, 19, 29
Wind Character and Gust Speed - at 10 m
209 1, 2   Wind Character at 10 m; Gust=1 (G), Squall=2 (Q) S 32
210 km/h   Wind Gust Speed at 10 m S,E 32
RCS Elements - Phase 1
262 0.1 mm   Precipitation Amount (Minutes 01-60)   33
263 0.1 mm   Precipitation Amount (Minutes 01-15)   33
264 0.1 mm   Precipitation Amount (Minutes 16-30)   33
265 0.1 mm   Precipitation Amount (Minutes 31-45)   33
266 0.1 mm   Precipitation Amount (Minutes 46-60)   33
267 0.1 kg/m2   Precipitation Gauge Weight Per Unit Area (at Minute 15)   33
268 0.1 kg/m2   Precipitation Gauge Weight Per Unit Area (at Minute 30)   33
269 0.1 kg/m2   Precipitation Gauge Weight Per Unit Area (at Minute 45)   33
270 0.1 kg/m2   Precipitation Gauge Weight Per Unit Area (at Minute 60)   33
271 0.1 km/h   Wind Speed at 2 m (Minutes 01-15)   33
272 0.1 km/h   Wind Speed at 2 m (Minutes 16-30)   33
273 0.1 km/h   Wind Speed at 2 m (Minutes 31-45)   33
274 0.1 km/h   Wind Speed at 2 m (Minutes 46-60)   33
275 cm   Snow Depth (at Minute 60)   33
276 cm   Snow Depth (at Minute 15)   33
277 cm   Snow Depth (at Minute 30)   33
278 cm   Snow Depth (at Minute 45)   33
279 degrees   Wind Direction at 2 m (Minutes 59-60)   33
280 0.1 km/h   Wind Speed at 2 m (Minutes 59-60)   33

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Rate of Rainfall (HLY03) (see also HLY21)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY03 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
123 0.1mm   Hourly Rainfall H, I, J  

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Rate of Rainfall (DLY03) (see also DLY21)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY03 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
124 0.01   Adjustment Factor   20
125-132 Since Last Chart Change, Greatest Amount of Precipitation in...
125 0.1mm   5 Minutes H, I, J 36
126 0.1mm   10 Minutes H, I, J 36
127 0.1mm   15 Minutes H, I, J 36
128 0.1mm   30 Minutes H, I, J 36
129 0.1mm   1 Hours H, I, J 36
130 0.1mm   2 Hours H, I, J 36
131 0.1mm   6 Hours H, I, J 36
132 0.1mm   12 Hours H, I, J 36
160     Chart Change Hour (Local Standard Time)    

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Daily Climatological Data (DLY02, DLY04) - (Note 16)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY02 and DLY04 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
001 0.1 deg C   Daily Maximum Temperature E  
002 0.1 deg C   Daily Minimum Temperature E, N, Y  
003 0.1 deg C   Daily Mean Temperature E  
004 %   Daily Max. Relative Humidity    
005 %   Daily Min. Relative Humidity    
023 10's of deg (See 157)   Direction of Extreme Gust (16 pts) to Dec. 1976 S, E 5, 34
024 km/h   Speed of Extreme Gust S, E  
025     UTC Hour of Extreme Gust (Earliest)   41
157 10's of deg (see 023)   Direction of Extreme Gust (36 pts) from Jan. 1977 S, E  
006-009 6 hrly. Precipitation ending
006 0.1mm   1200 UTC T 15
007 0.1mm   1800 UTC T 15
008 0.1mm   0000 UTC T 15
009 0.1mm   0600 UTC T 15
010 0.1mm   Total Rainfall E,T,C,L,A,F  
011 0.1cm   Total Snowfall E,T,C,L,A,F 37
012 0.1mm   Total Precipitation E,T,C,L,A,F 37
013 cm   Snow on the Ground E, T 8, 37
014-022 Day with... (DLY04 - also available for DLY44, elements 014-017)
014   1=Yes, 0=No Thunderstorms   14
015   1=Yes, 0=No Freezing Rain or Drizzle   14
016   1=Yes, 0=No Hail   14
017   1=Yes, 0=No Fog or Ice Fog   14
018   1=Yes, 0=No Smoke or Haze   14
019   1=Yes, 0=No Blowing Dust or Sand   14
020   1=Yes, 0=No Blowing Snow   14
021   1=Yes, 0=No Wind Speed >= 28 Knots   14
022   1=Yes, 0=No Wind Speed >= 34 Knots   14
179 hrs   Daily Bright Sunshine   42

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Daily Climatological Data from COOLTAP (DLY44) - (Note 16)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY44 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
001 0.1 deg C   Daily Maximum Temperature   31
002 0.1 deg C   Daily Minimum Temperature   31
003 0.1 deg C   Daily Mean Temperature   31
010 0.1mm   Total Rainfall   31
011 0.1cm   Total Snowfall   31
012 0.1mm   Total Precipitation   31
013 cm   Snow on the Ground   8, 31
014-017 Day with... (DLY04 & DLY44)
014   1=Yes, 0=No Thunderstorms   14
015   1=Yes, 0=No Freezing Rain or Drizzle   14
016   1=Yes, 0=No Hail   14
017   1=Yes, 0=No Fog or Ice Fog   14

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Monthly Climatological Data (MLY04) - (Note 16)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for MLY04 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
026-038 Number of Days With..
026     Frost I 25
027     Thunderstorms I 25
028     Rain or Drizzle I 25
029     Freezing Rain or Drizzle I 25
030     Hail I 25
031     Snow I 25
032     Measurable Precipitation I 25
033     Fog or Ice Fog    
034     Smoke or Haze    
035     Blowing Dust or Sand    
036     Blowing Snow    
037     Wind Speed >= 28 Knots    
038     Wind >= 34 Knots    
039 whole cm   Snow Cover - Last Day of Month E, T  
040 0.1 deg C   Mean Maximum Temperature E, I 26
041 0.1 deg C   Mean Minimum Temperature E, I 26
042 0.1 deg C   Mean Monthly Temperature E, I 26
043 0.1 deg C   Mean Monthly Temperature Difference from Normal E 18
044 0.1 deg C   Extreme Maximum Temperature E, S, B, I 25
045     Date of Extreme Maximum Temperature (Earliest)    
046 0.1 deg C   Extreme Minimum Temperature E, S, B, I 25
047     Date of Extreme Minimum Temperature (Earliest)    
048 0.1mm   Total Rainfall E, T, I 25
049 0.1cm   Total Snowfall E, T, I 25
050 0.1mm   Total Precipitation E, T, I 25
051 0.1mm   Total Precipitation Difference from Normal E, T, I 18, 25
052 0.1mm   Greatest Rainfall E, T, S, B, I 25
053     Date of Greatest Rainfall (Earliest)    
054 0.1cm   Greatest Snowfall E, T, S, B, I 25
055     Date of Greatest Snowfall (Earliest)    
056 0.1mm   Greatest Precipitation E, T, S, B, I 25
057     Date of Greatest Precipitation (Earliest)    
058 10's of deg   Direction of Extreme Gust (16 pts) to Dec. 1976 E, S, B 9
059 km/h   Speed of Extreme Gust E, S, B 9
060     Date of Extreme Gust (Earliest) E, S, B 9
158 10's of deg   Direction of Extreme Gust (36 pts) from Jan. 1977 E, S, B 9

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Bright Sunshine (HLY10)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY10 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
133 0.1 hrs   Sunshine E 21

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Solar Radiation (HLY11)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY11 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
061 .001 MJ/m2   RF1 Global Solar Radiation D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
062 .001 MJ/m2   RF2 Sky (diffuse) Rad. D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
063 .001 MJ/m2   RF3 Reflected Solar Rad. D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
064 .001 MJ/m2   RF4 Net All Wave Rad. D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z  
067 .01 Kilolux_hrs   RF7 Daylight Illumination D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
068 .001 MJ/m2   RF8 Direct Solar Rad. D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
169 .001 MJ/m2   RF9 Incident Longwave Rad. (shaded) D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z  
170 .001 MJ/m2   RFB Emitted Longwave Rad. D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z  
171 .001 MJ/m2   RFC Incident Solar Rad. -green D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22
172 .001 MJ/m2   RFD Incident Solar Rad. -red D,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 22

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Solar Radiation (MIN11)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for MIN11 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
200 0.1 W/m2   RF1 Global Solar Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
201 0.1 W/m2   RF2 Sky (diffuse) Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
202 0.1 W/m2   RF3 Reflected Solar Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
203 0.1 W/m2   RF4 Net All Wave Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
204 0.1 W/m2   RF8 Direct Solar Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
205 0.1 W/m2   RF9 Incident Longwave Radiation (shaded) D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
206 0.1 W/m2   RFB Emitted Longwave Radiation D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
207 0.1 W/m2   RFC Incident Solar Radiation -Green (PAR) D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35
208 0.1 W/m2   RFD Incident Solar Radiation -Red (PAR) D,P,R,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 35

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Soil Temperature (DLY12)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY12 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
134-141 AM Soil Temperatures at...
134 0.1 deg C   1 cm   10
135 0.1 deg C   5 cm    
136 0.1 deg C   10 cm    
137 0.1 deg C   20 cm    
138 0.1 deg C   50 cm    
139 0.1 deg C   100 cm    
140 0.1 deg C   150 cm    
141 0.1 deg C   300 cm    
142 whole cm   AM Snow Depth    
143-149 PM Soil Temperatures at...
143 0.1 deg C   1 cm   10
144 0.1 deg C   5 cm    
145 0.1 deg C   10 cm    
146 0.1 deg C   20 cm    
147 0.1 deg C   50 cm   10
148 0.1 deg C   100 cm   10
149 0.1 deg C   150 cm   10
150 whole cm   PM Snow Depth   10

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Pan Evaporation (DLY13)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY13 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
151 0.1mm   Pan Evaporation E  
152 km   Wind Mileage E  
153 0.1 deg C   Water Temperature E  
154 0.1 deg C   Air Temperature E  
155 0.1mm   Lake Evaporation E  

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Wind (HLY15)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY15 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
069 10's of deg   Direction - 45B Anemometer (8 pts) E 11, 17
070 km/h   Run Per Hour - 45B Anemometer E 17
076 km/h   Wind Speed - U2A E 17
156 10's of deg (see 075)   Direction - U2A Anemometer E 17

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Precipitation (Fischer/Porter) Data (FIF21)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for FIF21 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
159 0.1mm   Precipitation A, K, L 39

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Precipitation (Fischer/Porter) Data (HLY21)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for HLY21 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
123 0.1mm   Hourly Precipitation H, I, J  

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Precipitation (Fischer/Porter) Data (DLY21)

Element number, units, code, description, flags and notes for DLY21 weather elements
Element Units Code Description Flags Note
012 0.1mm   Total Precipitation E,T,C,L,A,F  
127-132,161 Greatest Amount of Precipitation in...
127 0.1mm   15 Minutes H, I, J  
128 0.1mm   30 Minutes H, I, J  
129 0.1mm   1 Hours H, I, J  
130 0.1mm   2 Hours H, I, J  
131 0.1mm   6 Hours H, I, J  
132 0.1mm   12 Hours H, I, J  
161 0.1mm   24 Hours H, I, J  

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Upper Air Data (UAS/UAW)

Record Formats

Standard record formats have been adopted for upper air data which are archived at pressure levels, minute intervals or significant wind levels.

Each value is recorded as a five (5) digit integer plus a leading sign field and a following flag field. The units and decimal positions are implied by an assigned element number.

Each record consists of station identification, date, time and element number followed by the data, repeated for each level or time interval, from the lowest level to the termination of the ascent.

File organization is element within date and time (usually hours 00,06,12,18 UTC).

The two (2) record formats are:

Ascent Record of Interspersed significant and Standard Level Data (UAS) Length 656

     |    STN ID   | YR  |MO |DY |HR |ELEM |S|  VALUE |F|SPARES|SRC|
     |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
            

This data is repeated 90 times.

Ascent Record of Wind Data (UAW) Length 866

     |    STN ID   | YR  |MO |DY |HR |ELEM |S|  VALUE |F|SPARES|SRC|
     |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|
            

This data is repeated 120 times.

Legend

Abbreviation, field length, field name and data type for data fields used in the standard record formats
Abbreviation Length Field Data Type
STN ID 7 Station Identification alphanumeric
YEAR 3 Year i.e. 973 = 1973 numeric
MO 2 Month i.e. 01 = Jan. etc. numeric
DY 2 Day numeric
HR 2 Hour UTC numeric
Element 3 Element Number numeric
S 1 Sign '-' = negative
'0' = positive
VALUE 5 Data Value numeric
F 1 Flag alphanumeric
SPARES 6 -NOT ASSIGNED-  
SRC 1 Source Code alphanumeric

Field Description

Station Identification

This is the climatological listing number which contains province and district designation.

Element Number

An assigned element number uniquely identifies each data type and implies the units and decimal position. Documentation for each element is organized by record format.

Data Value Field

This field records the data at one level or time interval. The sign is explicit if negative and implicit if positive. All value fields are initialized to -99999M. If the ascent if missing, no records are written.

The units and decimal position are determined by the element number.

Source Code

This code indicates the equipment or source of the data.

A = ADRES (implemented between June 1980 and May 1981)

B = pre-ADRES (data converted from the card archive, type 05,06,08 & 18)

List and Description of Elements

UAS Record

Element number, units, description and notes for UAS weather elements
Element Units Description Notes
181 0.01 kPa Pressure 27, 30
182 whole metres Altitude above sea level 27, 30
183 0.1 deg. c Temperature 27, 30
184 % Relative humidity 27, 30
185 degrees Wind direction 27, 30
186 metres per second Wind speed 27, 30

UAW Record

Element number, units, description and notes for UAW weather elements
Element Units Description Notes
187 0.01 kPa Pressure 28, 30
188 whole metres Altitude above sea level 28, 30
189 degrees Wind Direction 28, 30
190 metres per second Wind speed 28, 30

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Table of Flags

Flag, definition and applicable weather elements
Flag Definition Elements
blank Valid Data all except 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
A Accumulated amount; previous value C or L for elements 010, 011, 012 K or L for elements 159 010, 011, 012, 159
B More than one occurrence & estimated 044, 046, 052, 054, 056, 058, 059
C Precipitation occurred, amount uncertain; value is 0 010, 011, 012
D Derived 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
E Estimated all except 061-068, 169-172, 200-208, 262-280
F Accumulated and estimated 010, 011, 012
G Uncorrected 107-122, 219-230
H Freezing 123, 125-132
I Unadjusted 123, 125-132
I Incomplete - month contains at least one missing value 26-32, 44, 46, 48-52
I Incomplete - month contains 3 consecutive or 5 random missing values 40, 41, 42
J Freezing and unadjusted 123, 125-132
K First occurrence when precip. may or may not have occurred; value is 0. 159
L Precipitation may or may not have occurred; value is 0 010, 011, 012, 159
M Missing all
N Time uncertain 159
N Temperature missing, but known to be ABOVE freezing. 002
O Not assigned  
P Identified by automatic QC as suspect 200-208
Q Not assigned  
R Identified by automatic QC as erroneous 200-208
S More than one occurrence 023, 024, 044, 046, 052, 054, 056, 058, 059, 157, 158, 209, 210
T Trace. Value is zero 006-013, 039, 048-052, 054, 056
U Valid datum, unknown snow 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
V Valid datum, no snow cover 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
W Valid datum, with snow cover 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
X Estimated, unknown snow 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
Y Estimated, no snow cover 061-068, 169-172, 200-208
Y Temperature missing, but known to be BELOW freezing. 002
Z Estimated, with snow cover 061-068, 169-172, 200-208

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Notes:

Note 1 for element 083

This element indicates the presence or absence of any type of weather or obstruction to vision. This record will always be available with a code of 0 indicating no weather for the hour. When 1 is entered, one or more of elements 084-106,260 will be available. Records for elements 084-106,260 will be included only if the phenomena occurred on one or more hours. Some automatic stations used by Environment Canada are incapable of recording this element. For these stations a value of zero is entered into the database as a default.

Note 2 for elements 084-106,260

A '0' indicates the phenomena did not occur

Note 3 for elements 086-092 and 094-098

1 = Light; 2 = Moderate; 3 = Heavy

Note 4 for elements 109, 113, 117, 121, 221, 225 and 229

Until 1994 the cloud types available for elements 109, 113, and 117, were limited to codes 0-16.

Code, symbol and cloud type
CodeSymbolCloud Type
0 None
1ACAltocumulus
2ACCAltocumulus Castellanus
3ASAltostratus
4CCCirrocumulus
5CSCirrostratus
6CICirrus
7CBCumulonimbus
8CUCumulus
9CFCumulus Fractus
10 SF Stratus Fractus
11 TCU Towering Cumulus
12 NS Nimbostratus
13 SC Stratocumulus
14 ST Stratus
15 F Fog
16 Obstruction other than Fog
17 R Rain (any form including RW and ZR)
18 A Hail
19 IP Ice Pellets (including Ice Pellet Showers)
20 L Drizzle (including Freezing Drizzle)
21 IC Ice Crystals
22 S Snow (Snow Showers, Snow Pellets and Snow Grains)
23 BS Blowing Snow
24 D Dust, Blowing Dust or Duststorm
25 H Haze
26 N Sand, Blowing Sand or Sandstorm
27 K Smoke
28 VA Volcanic Ash

Note 5 for elements 075 and 023

16 point, range and 10s of deg
16 point Direction/Range 10s of Degrees
NNE (012-033) 02
NE (034-056) 05
ENE (057-078) 07
E (079-101) 09
ESE (102-123) 11
SE (124-146) 14
SSE (147-168) 16
S (169-191) 18
SSW (192-213) 20
SW (214-236) 23
WSW (237-258) 25
W (259-281) 27
WNW (282-303) 29
NW (304-326) 32
NNW (327-348) 34
N (349-011) 36
CALM 00

Note 6 for element 071

Unlimited Ceiling has been assigned a value of 888.

Note 7 for element 072 (Visibility)

Value in km and statute miles
Value (km) Statute Miles
25.0 15+
15.0 9
0.0 0
0.2 1/8
0.4 1/4
0.6 3/8
0.8 1/2
1.0 5/8
1.2 3/4
1.6 1
2.0 1 1/4
2.4 1 1/2
2.8 1 3/4
3.2 2
3.6 2 1/4
4.0 2 1/2
4.8 3
ETC
159.3 99

Note 8 for element 013

Daily snow depth is available since 1955 for about 300 primary and selected climatological stations.

The record for this element will not be available if snow on the ground is reported only on the last day of the month. Last day snow depth is available from element 039 on the MLY04 file.

In 1981 many non-primary stations began to observe daily snow depth. Frequently, zero amounts are not entered on the document and are archived as missing. This deficiency is most evident after the last measured depth in the spring.

Note 9 for elements 058, 059, 060 and 158

When no gusting occurs, direction and speed are coded -99999M and the date is 000000b (b means blank).

Note 10 for elements 147-150, 134 and 143

Elements 147-150 were discontinued June 1966.

Elements 134 & 143 were gradually phased out beginning June 1966.

Note 11 for element 069

8 point, range and 10s of deg
8 point Compass Direction/Range 10s of Degrees
N 336 -025 34 35 36 01 02
NE 026 -065 03 04 05 06
E 066 -115 07 08 09 10 11
SE 116 -155 12 13 14 15
S 156 -205 16 17 18 19 20
SW 206 -245 21 22 23 24
W 246 -295 25 26 27 28 29
NW 296 -335 30 31 32 33
CALM 000 00

Note 12 for elements 107-122, 219-230

Effective May 1977, cloud layer data which failed quality control were not subjected to review or corrective action unless ceiling, total opacity and/or total amount was affected. Any failure caused all values to be flagged.

Note 13 for elements 108, 112, 116, 120, 220, 224, 228

Effective January 1977, the layer amount (in tenths) was replaced by a sky condition code:

Code, sky condition, term and equivalent in tenths for codes from 0 to 10
Code Sky Condition Term Equivalent in tenths
0 CLR Clear The sky condition when no cloud or obscuring phenomenon is present.
1 -X Partially Obscured A surface-based layer with summation opacity of at least 1/10 but less than 10/10.
2 -SCT* Scattered (thin)  
3 SCT Scattered A layer aloft with a summation amount of 4/10 to 5/10 inclusive.
4 -BKN* Broken (thin)  
5 -OVC* Overcast (thin)  
7 BKN Broken A layer aloft with a summation amount of 6/10 to 9/10 inclusive.
9 X Obscured A surface-based layer with a summation opacity of 10/10.
10 OVC Overcast A layer aloft with a summation amount of 10/10.

* A layer aloft shall be described as "thin" when both:

(a) The summation amount of the layer exceeds the summation opacity of the layer by 1/10 or more of the whole sky, and

(b) The summation opacity of the layer is 5/10 or less of the whole sky.

Note 14 for elements 014-022

At primary stations since 1955.

Elements 021 and 022 are available only if stations observe wind hourly.

Elements 014-016 are seldom available at other than primary stations prior to 1977. Since 1977 they are available but may be unreliable.

Note 15 for elements 006-009

Six hourly precipitation totals ending at:

Element number, to June 1961 and from July 1961
Elementto June 1961 from July 1961
006 1800z 1200z
007 0000z 1800z
008 0600z 0000z
009 1200z 0600z

Note 16 for elements of sections DLY02, DLY04, MLY04, DLY44

The following guidelines can be used to determine the times of observations and the endpoint of the climatological day for temperature and precipitation elements:

For stations operating on a 24 hour basis, since July 1, 1961, the climatological day for temperature and precipitation ends at 0600Z of the following day. From June 1, 1957 to June 30, 1961, the climatological day for precipitation and maximum temperature ended at 1200Z of the following day. The climatological day for minimum temperatures ended at 0000Z of the following day. Before June 1, 1957, the climatological day for precipitation and maximum temperature ended at 1230Z of the following day. The climatological day for minimum temperatures ended at 0030Z of the following day.

At locations with no hourly observations, observation times are generally morning and evening. In general, the climatological day for precipitation and maximum temperature ends at the morning observation of the following day. The climatological day for minimum temperatures ends at the afternoon observation of the current day. For sites reporting only once per day, the calendar day rather than climatological day applies.

In cases where knowing time-of-observation is critical, the best approach is to check the historical inspection reports for the station. Contact Climate Services for further information about station inspection reports.

Note 17 for elements 069, 070, 075, 076, 156

Wind data are available in either the HLY01 or HLY15 data sets. U2A anemometer winds, from stations which also observe other weather elements, are archived in the HLY01 data sets. Currently, these data are from the SA type message or form 2322. The HLY15 data sets are primarily 45B anemometer winds. However, stations equipped with U2A and reporting only winds are included.

Note 18 for elements 043, 051

These differences from normal are available from 1977 to 1993. The 1941-1970 normals were replaced by the 1951-1980 normals with the processing of January 1982 data.

Note 19 for elements 107-122, 219-230

If a cloud observation is taken, the four elements of the lowest (or only) layer are entered in the archive. If there is no cloud, the height is assigned a value of 888 and the other elements of the layer are zero. The second to fourth/sixth (see Note 29) layers are archived only if cloud is reported.

Note 20 for element 124

A factor applied to the hourly and duration amounts to bring them in line with the daily total measured with a standard MSC Precipitation Gauge. This element is available since 1978.

Note 21 for element 133

Records are not included during the periods of Polar Night.

Note 22 for elements 061-063, 067, 065-068, 171, 172

Periods of Polar Night are indicated by a data value of -00000 (literally: minus zero).

Note 23 for elements 100 and 260

Observations of Element 100 (IF) discontinued November 1, 1999. Observations of Element 260 (FZFG) commenced November 1, 1999.

Note 24 for element 093

Between 1995-02-20 and November 2000, observations of IC (ice crystals) at temperatures greater than -16°C were automatically changed to S- (light snow). Thus, archived occurrences of S- at temperatures >-16°C may have originally been reported as IC.

Note 25 for elements 026 to 032, 044, 046, 048 to 052, 054 and 056

Beginning in 1994, values derived for these elements were flagged with "I" for incomplete if the month contained one or more missing daily values.

Note 26 for elements 040, 041, 042

Beginning in 1994, values derived for elements 040, 041 and 042 were flagged with "I", denoting incomplete, if the month contained more than 3 consecutive missing daily values or more than 5 missing daily values in total for the month.

Note 27 for elements 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

  • Data for significant and standard levels are interspersed in descending pressure sequence.
  • If any data are available for an ascent, all six(6) records are included.
  • The first level at which temperature is available represents the surface weather observation.
  • for standard pressure levels exceeding the station pressure, only the altitude is given, and may be negative.
  • The termination of an ascent is indicated by a value of -99999M in the pressure record (element 181).
  • Prior to ADRES, wind direction and speed (elements 185 & 186) are only available for standard levels.
  • Prior to 1969 the surface pressure is in tenths of kilopascals.
  • ADRES was implemented between June 1980 and May 1981. Each record carries a code indicating the source of the data.
  • Prior to ADRES the altitude is available for standard pressure levels only.
  • After the installation of ADRES, pressures for significant levels are in hundredths of kilopascals.
  • The available standard levels vary, but will be from the following list:
     100.00, 95.00, 90.00, 85.00, 80.00, 75.00, 70.00,
      65.00, 60.00, 55.00, 50.00, 45.00, 40.00, 35.00, 30.00,
      25.00, 20.00, 17.50, 15.00, 12.50, 10.00,  8.00,  7.00,
       6.00,  5.00,  4.00,  3.00,  2.50,  2.00,  1.50,  1.00,
        .70,   .40,   .30,   .20 kPa.
    • 2.50 kPa surface available since mid 1957
    • 7.00, .30, .20 kPa surfaces available from JAN/61
    • 95.00, 75.00, 65.00, 55.00, 45.00, .30, .20 kPa surfaces are not available after ADRES installed at the station.

Note 28 for elements 187, 188, 189, 190

Two types of data are available depending on the period. Before the implementation of ADRES at the station, significant wind level data are recorded with altitude, direction and speed available (elements 188,189 & 190). After the implementation of ADRES, winds are recorded at minute intervals with pressure, altitude, direction and speed available (elements 187, 188, 189 & 190). The termination of the ascent is indicated by a value of -99999M in the altitude record (element 188).

Note 29 for elements 107-122, 219-230

The Manual of Surface Weather Observations (MANOBS) allows up to six cloud layers from manned stations and five from Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) stations (a ground-based layer plus four layers aloft). In the past, an algorithm was used to compress the layers into a maximum of four layers to be stored in the archive. With the introduction of elements 219-230, all layers are available in the archive since 1994. The compressed fourth layer (element 119-122) will continue to be populated to support legacy applications.

Note 30 for elements 181-190

RS80 radiosondes have been replaced by RS92 radionsondes. The switchover began in October 2005 and was completed in June 2006.

The following GENOT was issued on October 14, 2005 reflecting the date/time as to when the switchover took place:

  • NOCN01 CWAO 141830
  • GENOT TLTP. NO. 139

Note 31 for elements 001-003, 010-013 (DLY44)

In 2004, the Meteorological Service of Canada developed a web-based application called COOLTAP to collect climate information from volunteer and cooperative observers (originally part of the Temperature and Precipitation Climate Observer Network) with access to internet-enabled computers. Observers that do not have access to the internet enter their observations via a touch-tone reporting system called ONTAP-IVR.

COOLTAP observations include maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, snowfall, and snow depth data. Observations are taken once or twice a day.

Note 32 for elements 209, 210

Wind character and wind gust speed are acquired at a height of 10 m. These elements are reported since 1994 and have been added to the archive in January 2006.

Note 33 for elements 262-280

Additional RCS elements were added to the archive in January 2006. Quality control functions have yet to be defined, therefore basic quality control is not performed at the ingest stage. As a result, the status of the data is “R” (raw)

The sampling interval of the data logger is 5 seconds and this is the basis of all subsequent averages. The elements described in this note are transmitted from the data logger at the end of an hour for a given report time.

ELEMENT DESCRIPTION

262-270: The Precipitation Gauge Weight (Elements 267-270) is derived by using a weighing type gauge. The weights are computed for each minute of the hour based on a 9-minute boxcar* average. The precipitation gauge weight is computed for a given minute (15, 30, 45, 60) in units of kg/m2 and stored with a resolution of 0.1 kg/m2. The Total Hourly Precipitation (Element 262) is the total precipitation amount for minutes 01 through 60, inclusive. The Total Precipitation Amount (Elements 263-266) is derived over a 15-minute interval (01-15, 16-30, 31-45, 46-60) by computing the difference between 15-minute precipitation gauge weights at the beginning and end of an interval. Units of kg/m2 equate to mm. Precipitation amounts are stored in mm with a resolution of 0.1 mm.

271-274, 279-280: The 15-minute Average Wind Speed at 2 metres (Elements 271-274) is averaged over a 15-minute interval (01-15, 16-30, 31-45, 46-60). The average for the interval is computed as the mean of the 15 minutely averages. The wind speed is observed in m/s and is archived in km/h with a resolution of 0.1 km/h. The Average Wind Direction at 2 metres (Element 279), at the top of the hour (minutes 59-60), is computed using a vector algorithm where the average north and east vectors are converted to a direction in degrees true, with a resolution of whole degrees. The Average Wind Speed at 2 metres (Element 280), at the top of the hour, is averaged over the interval of minutes 59-60. This element is observed in m/s and will be archived in km/h with a resolution of 0.1 km/h.

275-278: The Snow Depth element is the depth of snow on ground computed for a given minute (15, 30, 45, 60) based on a 9-minute boxcar* average for that minute. It is stored in whole cm with a resolution of 1 cm.

boxcar* - (def) A moving average computed for each minute, based on 9 minutely average values preceding each target minute.

Note 34 for elements 023

During the period of 1955 and 1966, “S” flags were used for element 023, Direction of Extreme Wind Gust. The “S” flag indicated that the Hourly Peak Wind Gust value occurred more than once within that day.

Note 35 for elements 200-208

Flags P (suspect) and R (erroneous) only apply to minutely solar radiation data processed by a new automated solar radiation system implemented in 2005. These flags only apply to data that has a status of Raw, meaning that suspect/error flags assigned to the data during automatic QC have not yet been cleared or corrected by manual interactive QC. These two flags allow the user to make their own determination of whether the data quality is appropriate for their application. Data values which have a status of Q (quality controlled), and therefore no P or R flag, have passed both automatic QC as well as any manual QC required to inspect and/or correct suspect/erroneous data.

Note 36 for elements 125-132

Rate of Rainfall data for the period 1996-1999, provided by the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs, presented a few irregularities. This only affects data for stations located in the province of Québec. These rare occurrences present Rate of Rainfall data (complete or partial) that are not supported by hourly precipitation for the corresponding period. The standard gauge value might also be missing. In these circumstances, the Rate of Rainfall data are flagged as "I" (Unadjusted).

Note 37 for elements 011, 012 and 013 (DLY02)

Because the sections of the synoptic message pertaining to elements 011, 012 and 013 are not mandatory, they may be omitted from the message. When the data are ingested into the database, the missing message is replaced by a zero. For these elements, a zero may therefore indicate that the observed value was zero or that the relevant portions of the synoptic message were not transmitted.

Note 38 for HLY01 elements

Special (SPL01) observations, recorded at times outside the regular schedule, are made for HLY01 elements at some stations. Note that SPL01 observations are not reported for RCS elements (elements 262-280).

Note 39 for element 159

Data for element 159 is formatted with a three digit year as follows:

Daily Record of 15 Minute Data (FIF) - Length 690

    |    STN ID   |YEAR |MO |DY |ELEM |S|  VALUE  |F|    |FLG|
    |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|    |___|
            

This data is repeated 96 times.

Note 40 for element 072

Due to different observation standards, the maximum visibility that can be recorded by manned stations is 15 statute miles, while the maximum for AWOS stations is 9 statute miles. A value of 15 (for manned stations) or 9 (for AWOS stations) may mean that the actual visibility value exceeded that amount.

Note 41 for element 025

This element is reported in UTC after 1961 and in LST prior to 1961. For information on the date a specific station switched from LST to UTC, contact Climate Services.

Note 42 for element 179

The program responsible for reporting Daily Bright Sunshine was no longer operational as of July 1, 2005.