Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
GANDER INT'L A *
NEWFOUNDLAND
Latitude: 48°56'47.000" N Longitude: 54°34'37.000" W Elevation: 151.20 m
Climate ID: 8401700 WMO ID: 71803 TC ID: YQX

* This station meets WMO standards for temperature and precipitation.

Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -7.4 -7.9 -4.0 1.3 6.7 11.6 16.0 15.7 11.4 5.8 1.0 -4.3 3.8 A
Standard Deviation 2.0 2.8 2.1 1.5 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.9 0.9 A
Daily Maximum (°C) -3.2 -3.4 0.4 5.2 11.7 17.2 21.4 20.6 15.8 9.5 4.2 -0.7 8.2 A
Daily Minimum (°C) -11.5 -12.3 -8.2 -2.6 1.7 6.0 10.7 10.7 6.9 2.0 -2.3 -7.9 -0.6 A
Extreme Maximum (°C) 12.3 13.4 18.1 22.6 28.3 32.8 35.6 33.3 28.9 24.4 20.6 14.4
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1983/ 13 1996/ 25 1999/ 29 1986/ 23 1972/ 30 1949/ 19 1952/ 08 1976/ 22 1948/ 07 1938/ 14 1967/ 04 1966/ 01
Extreme Minimum (°C) -27.2 -31.1 -28.8 -17.6 -8.9 -2.8 0.6 -1.1 -1.7 -7.2 -15.7 -26.1
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1957/ 29 1975/ 04 1986/ 10 1994/ 03 1962/ 01 1970/ 01 1974/ 08 1937/ 26 1972/ 28 1986/ 27 1993/ 25 1972/ 31
Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 29.5 24.4 34.5 47.1 71.8 80.3 83.9 96.4 101.9 98.0 67.9 36.0 771.6 A
Snowfall (cm) 90 79 77 46 13 4 0 0 0 13 39 82 443 A
Precipitation (mm) 111.5 98.0 110.4 95.4 86.3 85.2 83.9 96.4 101.9 112.4 106.7 113.8 1201.9 A
Average Snow Depth (cm) 29 36 32 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 16 11 A
Median Snow Depth (cm) 28 35 31 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 10 A
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 29 42 21 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 26 11 A
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 34.3 51.8 60.2 68.4 64.6 38.8 96.3 98.3 63.0 67.4 58.2 40.6
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1958/ 08 1984/ 05 1962/ 02 1986/ 11 1990/ 20 1992/ 16 1942/ 21 1951/ 05 1995/ 10 1981/ 17 1943/ 17 1974/ 10
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 44 48 59 38 18 22 0 0 5 22 44 46
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1987/ 05 1962/ 11 1993/ 18 1972/ 09 1994/ 07 1974/ 07 1937/ 01 1937/ 01 1949/ 21 1999/ 19 1980/ 19 1937/ 26
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 46.8 57.9 67.0 68.4 64.6 55.0 96.3 98.3 63.0 67.4 58.2 45.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1984/ 11 1962/ 11 1993/ 18 1986/ 11 1990/ 20 1994/ 03 1942/ 21 1951/ 05 1995/ 10 1981/ 17 1943/ 17 1937/ 26
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 131 147 152 119 29 20 0 0 0 28 65 88
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1995/ 29 2001/ 18 1982/ 03 2001/ 04 2001/ 02 1994/ 04 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 24 1997/ 29 2000/ 28
Days with Maximum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 21.9 20.6 13.8 3.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 6.1 18.3 84.6 A
> 0 °C 9.1 7.7 17.2 26.5 30.9 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 30.6 23.9 12.7 280.6 A
> 10 °C 0.5 0.2 0.9 4.5 17.7 26.0 30.4 30.6 27.0 13.0 3.9 0.7 155.5 A
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3.2 10.7 20.1 17.4 5.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 57.0 A
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 A
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 A
Days with Minimum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 0.6 0.8 1.6 5.5 20.3 28.4 31.0 31.0 29.8 21.6 7.3 1.5 179.3 A
<= 2 °C 30.8 28.0 30.7 27.8 18.5 4.6 0.1 0.0 2.2 16.4 26.3 30.3 215.7 A
<= 0 °C 30.4 27.5 29.4 24.5 10.7 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 9.4 22.7 29.5 186.0 A
< -2 °C 29.4 26.5 25.5 16.4 3.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 15.5 26.6 146.2 A
< -10 °C 19.0 18.3 12.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 11.0 62.6 A
< -20 °C 1.6 3.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 6.1 A
< - 30 °C 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 A
Days with Rainfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 6.5 5.7 9.5 11.7 16 16.3 16.4 15.5 17.3 18 13.4 8.9 155.1 A
>= 5 mm 2.1 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.5 5.5 5.9 5.6 6.1 5.7 4.7 2.5 50 A
>= 10 mm 1.1 0.53 0.83 1.3 2.1 2.3 2.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 2.2 0.97 23.7 A
>= 25 mm 0.03 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.73 0.67 0.40 0.20 0.07 3.4 A
Days With Snowfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 18.4 15.5 15.1 11.9 5.1 0.73 0 0 0.17 4.5 11.8 18.4 101.7 A
>= 5 cm 5.4 4.9 4.9 3 0.80 0.30 0 0 0 0.70 2.4 5.3 27.7 A
>= 10 cm 2.8 2.4 2.5 1.3 0.23 0.13 0 0 0 0.30 0.80 2.4 12.9 A
>= 25 cm 0.40 0.40 0.37 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.13 0.37 1.8 A
Days with Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 20.2 17.4 19.2 18.6 18.1 16.4 16.4 15.5 17.3 19.6 20.4 21.6 220.6 A
>= 5 mm 7.2 6.2 6.9 6.2 5.5 5.7 5.9 5.6 6.1 6.4 7.3 7.8 76.8 A
>= 10 mm 3.8 3.2 3.4 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.2 3.3 3.9 3.4 3.3 37.9 A
>= 25 mm 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.6 6.3 A
Days with Snow Depth
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 30.1 26.9 29.6 22 2.6 0.33 0 0 0 1.9 9.7 25 148.1 A
>= 5 cm 27.6 24.9 27.8 16.8 0.73 0.23 0 0 0 0.80 5.5 20.4 124.8 A
>= 10 cm 25 22.8 25.1 11.4 0.30 0.13 0 0 0 0.20 4.1 16.7 105.7 A
>= 20 cm 19.9 19.1 20.1 5.9 0.03 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.97 11 77 A
Wind
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 24.2 23.0 23.1 20.6 19.3 18.3 17.1 16.9 18.4 20.1 21.9 23.4 20.5 A
Most Frequent Direction W W W SW SW SW SW SW SW SW W W SW A
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 117 105 83 80 84 77 77 77 77 83 96 107
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1982/ 10 1967/ 22 1993/ 14 1964/ 01 1962/ 01 1962/ 07 1958/ 21 1958/ 17 1955/ 22 1987/ 02 1987/ 22 1979/ 17
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 172 145 135 116 114 116 105 113 130 148 133 159
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1982/ 10 1967/ 22 1965/ 23 1964/ 03 1970/ 27 1962/ 07 1959/ 01 1958/ 17 1955/ 21 1987/ 02 1986/ 14 1979/ 17
Direction of Maximum Gust S W W SW S E NW S SW SW W SE
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1982/ 10 1967/ 22 1965/ 23 1964/ 03 1970/ 27 1962/ 07 1959/ 01 1958/ 17 1955/ 21 1987/ 02 1986/ 14 1979/ 17
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 6.4 4.0 4.9 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.3 0.5 1.1 2.6 3.3 6.2 33.2 A
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 3.1 1.6 1.9 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.6 2.8 13.3 A
Degree Days
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.2 A
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 0 0.1 3.7 20.8 17.7 1 0.1 0 0 43.3 A
Above 15 °C 0 0 0 0 2.3 18.4 66.1 57.6 8.2 0.6 0 0 153.1 A
Above 10 °C 0 0 0 1.2 21.3 83.9 191.2 178.4 65.5 8.9 1.1 0 551.5 A
Above 5 °C 0.6 0.4 1.5 11.5 84.7 202.7 342.3 331.1 191.3 57.5 12.9 1.4 1237.8 A
Above 0 °C 5.9 6.9 17.6 64.6 209.6 348.9 497.3 486.1 340.7 181.3 64.6 13.7 2237.2 A
Below 0 °C 235.4 228.8 140.1 25.1 1.1 0 0 0 0 1.9 35.9 148.2 816.7 A
Below 5 °C 385.2 363.6 279 122 31.2 3.8 0.1 0 0.6 33.1 134.1 290.8 1643.6 A
Below 10 °C 539.6 504.6 432.5 261.7 122.8 34.9 3.9 2.3 24.8 139.6 272.4 444.5 2783.6 A
Below 15 °C 694.6 645.9 587.5 410.5 258.8 119.5 33.8 36.5 117.4 286.2 421.3 599.5 4211.5 A
Below 18 °C 787.6 730.7 680.5 500.5 349.6 194.7 81.5 89.6 200.2 378.7 511.3 692.5 5197.6 A
Evaporation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Lake Evaporation (mm) 0 0 0 0 0 3.5 3.7 3.2 2.1 0 0 0 0 A
Bright Sunshine
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Total Hours 94.3 104.7 118.9 124.2 167.4 192.0 216.4 206.5 141.4 106.7 73.0 75.1 1620.5 C
Days with measureable 21.0 19.4 22.0 20.8 24.0 24.8 27.8 27.1 24.4 23.5 20.2 19.2 274.4 C
% of possible daylight hours 34.8 36.6 32.3 30.2 35.4 39.7 44.4 46.4 37.3 31.8 26.4 29.1 35.4 C
Extreme Daily 8.7 10.4 11.5 13.7 15.3 15.7 15.5 14.3 12.8 9.8 9.1 8.1 B
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1994/ 31 1971/ 26 1994/ 31 1979/ 29 1997/ 30 1971/ 16 1994/ 08 1982/ 04 1990/ 01 1978/ 01 1977/ 01 1980/ 02
Humidex
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 12.7 13.4 17.5 24.8 29.6 37.0 40.4 39.0 34.3 27.3 25.7 18.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1953/ 12 1996/ 25 1999/ 29 1986/ 24 1964/ 25 1999/ 14 1975/ 19 1976/ 22 2001/ 09 1967/ 01 1967/ 04 1969/ 05
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 3.9 3.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.5 A
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 A
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 A
Wind Chill
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -43 -47 -45 -29 -17 -9 -4 -1 -7 -15 -28 -40
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1957/ 29 1990/ 03 1986/ 10 1994/ 03 1962/ 01 1974/ 07 1992/ 04 2002/ 31 1989/ 28 1986/ 26 1993/ 25 1984/ 27
Days with Wind Chill < -20 15.3 15.0 8.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 8.0 48.0 A
Days with Wind Chill < -30 2.7 3.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 7.6 A
Days with Wind Chill < -40 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 A
Humidity
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.7 A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 78.8 78.5 80.7 85 84.3 84.9 85.6 86.6 87.9 86.8 84.8 82.5 83.9 A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 71.3 67.2 66.5 67.3 63.5 62.2 61.9 62.4 65.7 70.5 75 76.5 67.5 A
Pressure
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 98.9 99 99.2 99.4 99.6 99.5 99.5 99.6 99.6 99.5 99.2 99 99.3 A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 100.8 100.9 101.1 101.2 101.4 101.3 101.3 101.4 101.4 101.4 101.1 100.9 101.2 A
Visibility (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 31.3 34.7 48.8 63 43.6 30.7 24.1 15.3 14.5 15.7 29.6 36.6 387.7 B
1 to 9 km 142.4 135.6 152.3 144.7 126.2 101.6 76.5 89.4 82.9 109.3 130.1 148.4 1439.5 B
> 9 km 570.3 507 543 512.2 574.3 587.7 643.4 639.4 622.6 619 560.3 559.1 6938.2 B
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 146.3 147.1 136.4 97.9 90.3 90.1 89 101.7 112.2 103.3 75.4 113.1 1302.6 B
3 to 7 tenths 156.9 127.8 123.4 104.8 130.6 152.7 198.5 195.9 167 141.6 127.9 136.6 1763.6 B
8 to 10 tenths 440.8 402.4 484.3 517.3 523.2 477.2 456.5 446.4 440.9 499.1 516.7 494.3 5,699 B
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years