Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
MONTREAL/PIERRE ELLIOTT TRUDEAU INTL A *
QUEBEC
Latitude: 45°28'00.000" N Longitude: 73°45'00.000" W Elevation: 36.00 m
Climate ID: 7025250 WMO ID: 71627 TC ID: YUL

* This station meets WMO standards for temperature and precipitation.

Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -10.2 -8.4 -2.3 5.7 13.4 18.2 20.9 19.6 14.6 8.1 1.6 -6.3 6.2 A
Standard Deviation 2.9 3.0 2.3 1.7 1.7 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.6 3.2 0.9 A
Daily Maximum (°C) -5.7 -3.9 2.2 10.7 19.0 23.6 26.2 24.8 19.7 12.7 5.3 -2.2 11.1 A
Daily Minimum (°C) -14.7 -12.9 -6.7 0.6 7.7 12.7 15.6 14.3 9.4 3.4 -2.1 -10.4 1.4 A
Extreme Maximum (°C) 13.9 15.0 25.6 30.0 33.9 35.0 35.6 37.6 33.5 28.3 21.7 18.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1950/ 25 1981/ 22 1945/ 28 1990/ 27 1962/ 19 1964/ 30 1953/ 17 1975/ 01 1999/ 04 1968/ 02 1948/ 06 2001/ 06
Extreme Minimum (°C) -37.8 -33.9 -29.4 -15.0 -4.4 0.0 6.1 3.3 -2.2 -7.2 -19.4 -32.4
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1957/ 15 1943/ 15 1950/ 04 1954/ 04 1974/ 02 1995/ 05 1982/ 03 1957/ 28 1951/ 30 1972/ 20 1949/ 27 1980/ 25
Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 27.2 19.8 35.8 63.9 76.1 83.1 91.3 92.7 92.6 75.4 71.2 35.1 763.8 A
Snowfall (cm) 52 43 36 13 0 0 0 0 0 2 22 48 218 A
Precipitation (mm) 78.3 61.5 73.6 78.0 76.3 83.1 91.3 92.7 92.6 77.8 92.6 81.3 978.9 A
Average Snow Depth (cm) 15 18 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 5 A
Median Snow Depth (cm) 15 18 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 4 A
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 17 17 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 13 4 A
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 46.6 31.5 32.4 48.2 45.6 66.5 63.6 73.8 81.9 80.5 93.5 51.2
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2006/ 18 1961/ 25 1998/ 09 2006/ 23 2006/ 19 1997/ 21 2005/ 05 2005/ 31 1979/ 14 1995/ 06 1996/ 08 2003/ 11
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 36 39 43 34 22 0 0 0 6 21 31 41
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 15 1954/ 16 1971/ 04 2000/ 09 1963/ 10 1942/ 01 1942/ 01 1942/ 01 1946/ 30 1988/ 22 1944/ 30 2005/ 16
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 47.0 39.4 42.8 48.2 45.6 66.5 63.6 73.8 81.9 80.5 93.5 51.4
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2006/ 18 1954/ 16 2001/ 22 2006/ 23 2006/ 19 1997/ 21 2005/ 05 2005/ 31 1979/ 14 1995/ 06 1996/ 08 2003/ 11
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 61 91 102 44 8 0 0 0 0 15 33 64
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 17 1958/ 22 1971/ 12 2001/ 01 1963/ 11 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1962/ 29 1965/ 22 1970/ 24
Days with Maximum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 23.2 19.7 10.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 18.3 77.4 A
> 0 °C 7.8 8.6 20.4 29.4 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 31.0 25.0 12.7 287.9 A
> 10 °C 0.1 0.2 3.2 15.3 29.7 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.7 20.9 5.7 0.6 197.5 A
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.1 12.4 23.9 30.0 28.2 13.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 112.7 A
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.5 3.2 1.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.6 A
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 A
Days with Minimum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 0.9 1.3 4.9 17.0 30.3 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.5 23.3 11.0 2.0 212.2 A
<= 2 °C 30.8 27.8 29.6 18.9 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.4 12.8 23.7 30.4 177.6 A
<= 0 °C 30.1 27.0 26.1 13.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 7.7 19.0 29.0 153.1 A
< -2 °C 29.1 25.8 22.2 8.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5 14.2 27.0 130.1 A
< -10 °C 22.3 18.2 9.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 15.2 67.3 A
< -20 °C 8.2 4.8 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 16.9 A
< - 30 °C 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 A
Days with Rainfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 4.3 4.2 7.2 11.3 12.9 13.1 12 12.3 12 12.7 11.2 6.1 119.4 A
>= 5 mm 1.6 1.2 2.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.4 4.6 4.5 2.4 46.6 A
>= 10 mm 1 0.63 1 2.1 2.7 2.9 3 3.3 2.9 2.3 2.3 1.2 25.3 A
>= 25 mm 0.17 0.03 0.13 0.31 0.43 0.50 0.86 0.70 1 0.43 0.47 0.07 5.1 A
Days With Snowfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 15.7 11.6 9.3 3.5 0.10 0 0 0 0 1 6 13.1 60.3 A
>= 5 cm 3.4 2.7 2.2 0.93 0 0 0 0 0 0.14 1.5 3.4 14.3 A
>= 10 cm 1.3 1.1 0.87 0.30 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.63 1.4 5.6 A
>= 25 cm 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.37 A
Days with Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 16.9 13.2 13.7 12.8 13.0 13.1 12.1 12.3 12.0 13.2 15.0 16.0 163.3 A
>= 5 mm 4.6 3.9 4.9 5.2 4.7 4.9 5.4 5.4 5.4 4.7 5.6 5.5 60.1 A
>= 10 mm 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.3 3.1 2.8 32.4 A
>= 25 mm 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.2 6.1 A
Days with Snow Depth
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 28.7 26.4 21.6 4 0 0 0 0 0 0.13 6.3 22 109.1 A
>= 5 cm 24.3 22.4 17.2 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.3 17.2 86.8 A
>= 10 cm 19.5 18.2 13.4 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 11.9 65.4 A
>= 20 cm 10.1 12 7.6 0.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 2.9 33.1 A
Wind
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 16.6 15.4 15.9 15.8 14.2 13.2 12.2 11.3 12.2 13.8 15.3 15.4 14.3 A
Most Frequent Direction W SW N N SW SW SW SW SW SW SW SW SW A
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 90 80 74 70 72 66 58 55 65 72 76 72
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1961/ 26 1971/ 04 1977/ 03 1964/ 09 1972/ 22 1956/ 11 1965/ 06 2005/ 29 1979/ 06 1975/ 10 2000/ 18
Direction of Maximum Hourly Speed SW N NE W SW NE SW NW NE SW SW W
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1961/ 26 1971/ 04 1977/ 03 1964/ 09 1972/ 22 1956/ 11 1965/ 06 1963/ 12 1979/ 06 1975/ 10 2000/ 18
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 117 138 161 106 103 111 126 105 97 117 113 103
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 1975/ 19 1956/ 14 1957/ 29 1975/ 02 1966/ 09 1956/ 06 1979/ 06 1989/ 16 1971/ 11
Direction of Maximum Gust SW SW S SW SW S W S SW SW S SW
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 1975/ 19 1956/ 14 1957/ 29 1975/ 02 1966/ 09 1956/ 06 1979/ 06 1989/ 16 1971/ 11
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 2.5 1.2 1.6 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.9 1.7 2.0 13.5 C
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.4 3.3 C
Degree Days
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0.1 2 6.1 3.2 0.5 0 0 0 11.9 A
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 0.4 10.6 46.3 97.1 70.6 16.1 0.4 0 0 241.6 A
Above 15 °C 0 0 0 2.2 32.7 106.1 182.9 146.1 45.5 3.4 0 0 518.7 A
Above 10 °C 0 0 0.5 15.7 117.8 244 337.2 297.5 146.5 30.9 2.8 0 1192.9 A
Above 5 °C 0.2 0.8 7 68.3 257.7 393.5 492.2 452.5 289.1 113.3 22.7 1.1 2098.4 A
Above 0 °C 5.6 8.3 43.6 179.4 411.8 543.5 647.2 607.5 438.9 250.9 88.3 13.3 3238.2 A
Below 0 °C 322.4 246.8 113.8 7.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 40.4 208.9 940.5 A
Below 5 °C 472 380.7 232.3 46.7 0.9 0 0 0 0.1 17.9 124.9 351.7 1627.1 A
Below 10 °C 626.8 521.2 380.8 144 16 0.5 0 0.1 7.6 90.5 255 505.5 2547.9 A
Below 15 °C 781.8 662.5 535.3 280.6 85.9 12.6 0.7 3.6 56.5 218 402.2 660.5 3700.1 A
Below 18 °C 874.8 747.3 628.3 368.8 156.7 42.8 7.9 21.1 117.2 308 492.2 753.5 4518.7 A
Bright Sunshine
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Total Hours 101.6 123.9 158.9 173.3 229.7 245.5 274.3 240.5 174.6 140.0 86.1 80.2 2028.7 C
Days with measureable 21.3 21.9 24.9 25.3 28.4 28.2 30.2 29.4 26.6 26.2 20.9 20.3 303.5 C
% of possible daylight hours 35.8 42.4 43.1 42.8 49.8 52.4 57.9 55.0 46.3 41.1 30.0 29.5 43.8 C
Extreme Daily 9.1 10.7 11.8 13.5 14.4 14.9 14.8 14.2 12.7 10.9 9.8 8.5 A
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1972/ 31 1978/ 28 1971/ 31 1982/ 30 1990/ 25 1987/ 06 1994/ 11 1987/ 01 1986/ 01 1983/ 10 1987/ 02 1980/ 04
Humidex
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 13.5 14.7 23.2 33.8 38.7 45.0 45.8 46.8 42.8 33.5 24.6 18.1
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1996/ 19 1981/ 22 1977/ 30 2002/ 16 1975/ 23 1953/ 21 2002/ 02 1975/ 01 1953/ 04 1967/ 03 1971/ 02 1982/ 04
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.1 8.5 17.0 13.3 3.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 44.7 A
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.4 6.0 3.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.5 A
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.2 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 A
Wind Chill
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -49 -46 -43 -26 -10 -2 4 1 -5 -11 -31 -46
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1976/ 23 1967/ 12 2003/ 03 1995/ 05 1978/ 01 1980/ 09 1982/ 01 1986/ 29 2000/ 28 1976/ 26 1958/ 30 1980/ 25
Days with Wind Chill < -20 17.7 13.4 5.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 10.4 47.1 A
Days with Wind Chill < -30 6.2 2.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 11.5 A
Days with Wind Chill < -40 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 A
Humidity
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.9 A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 73.9 73.7 74.8 75 75.2 78.9 81.9 86.2 87.3 83.6 80.9 78.2 79.1 A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 68.1 64 61 54 52 56.2 56.3 58.2 61.5 62.1 68.7 71 61.1 A
Pressure
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 101.2 101.3 101.1 100.9 100.9 100.9 100.9 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.2 101.3 101.1 A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.6 101.7 101.6 101.4 101.4 101.3 101.3 101.5 101.6 101.7 101.6 101.7 101.5 A
Radiation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Radiation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2) 11.2 16.8 22.9 27.7 31.1 31.7 30.5 27.3 23.4 17.7 11.9 8.3
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1994/ 31 1992/ 29 1994/ 30 1992/ 26 1997/ 27 1994/ 10 1993/ 01 1995/ 08 1992/ 02 1995/ 01 1993/ 02 1989/ 01
Extreme Diffuse - RF2 (MJ/m2) 6 8.6 13 14.5 13.7 14.5 15 12.6 10.7 8.1 5.2 4.3
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1993/ 29 1990/ 25 1998/ 23 1989/ 24 1997/ 29 1992/ 05 1993/ 05 1989/ 11 1990/ 21 1993/ 05 1990/ 13 1992/ 27
Visibility (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 8.9 9.3 9.6 5.4 1.7 1.2 0.4 1.4 2.7 5.8 6.7 9.6 62.7 B
1 to 9 km 161.3 124 107.2 61.1 43.4 56.4 56.6 75.5 66.7 69.8 114.9 155.2 1092.1 B
> 9 km 573.8 544.3 627.2 653.5 698.9 662.4 687 667 650.6 668.4 598.4 579.2 7610.8 B
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 187.7 194.7 217.3 184 189.8 189.4 209.8 210.2 198.7 190.8 125.8 162.5 2260.6 B
3 to 7 tenths 97.8 96.9 103.8 120.7 152.1 184.4 208.5 201.3 160.1 130 101 92.9 1649.4 B
8 to 10 tenths 458.5 386 423 415.4 402.1 346.2 325.7 332.5 361.2 423.3 493.2 488.7 4855.6 B
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years