Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
TORONTO LESTER B. PEARSON INT'L A *
ONTARIO
Latitude: 43°40'38.000" N Longitude: 79°37'50.000" W Elevation: 173.40 m
Climate ID: 6158733 WMO ID: 71624 TC ID: YYZ
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Temperature:
Daily Average (°C)-6.3 -5.4 -0.4 6.3 12.9 17.8 20.8 19.9 15.3 8.9 3.2 -2.9 7.5 LegendAA
Standard Deviation3 2.7 2.3 1.7 2 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.5 2.7 0.9 LegendAA
Daily Maximum (°C)-2.1 -1.1 4.1 11.5 18.8 23.7 26.8 25.6 21 13.9 7 0.9 12.5 LegendAA
Daily Minimum (°C)-10.5 -9.7 -5 1 6.9 11.9 14.8 14 9.6 3.9 -0.7 -6.7 2.5 LegendAA
Extreme Maximum (°C)16.7 14.9 25.6 31.1 34.4 36.7 37.6 38.3 36.7 30.6 25 20   Legend
Extreme Minimum (°C)-31.3 -31.1 -28.9 -17.2 -5.6 0.6 3.9 1.1 -3.9 -8.3 -18.3 -31.1   Legend
Precipitation:
Rainfall (mm)24.9 22.3 36.7 62.4 72.4 74.2 74.4 79.6 77.5 63.4 62 34.7 684.6 LegendAA
Snowfall (cm)31.1 22.1 19.2 5.7 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.5 7.6 29.2 115.4 LegendAA
Precipitation (mm)52.2 42.6 57.1 68.4 72.5 74.2 74.4 79.6 77.5 64.1 69.3 60.9 792.7 LegendAA
Average Snow Depth (cm)7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 LegendAA
Median Snow Depth (cm)6 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 LegendAA
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 LegendAA
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)58.7 31.8 41.7 55.8 92.7 53.8 118.5 80.8 108 121.4 86.1 40.9   Legend
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)36.8 39.9 32.3 26.7 2.3 0 0 0 0 7.4 33.5 28.2   Legend
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)58.7 55.9 41.7 55.8 92.7 53.8 118.5 80.8 108 121.4 86.1 40.9   Legend
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)67 43 28 13 0 0 0 0 0 13 16 33   Legend
Days with Maximum Temperature:
<= 0 °C18.7 15.7 7.9 0.60 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.1 12.2 57.2 LegendAA
> 0 °C12.3 12.6 23.1 29.4 31 30 31 31 30 31 27.9 18.8 308 LegendAA
> 10 °C0.57 0.53 5.1 16.9 29.7 30 31 31 29.9 23.3 7.9 1.7 207.5 LegendAA
> 20 °C0 0 0.60 2.5 11.8 23.6 30.1 28.8 16.7 3.5 0.27 0 118 LegendAA
> 30 °C0 0 0 0.13 0.43 2.3 5.7 3.2 0.80 0 0 0 12.6 LegendAA
> 35 °C0 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.37 0.07 0 0 0 0 0.54 LegendAA
Days with Minimum Temperature:
> 0 °C1.8 1.9 5.7 16.8 29.6 30 31 31 29.6 25.4 12.3 4.1 219.1 LegendAA
<= 2 °C30.5 27.9 28.4 18.5 4.5 0.13 0 0.03 1.3 11.7 22.8 29.8 175.6 LegendAA
<= 0 °C29.2 26.3 25.3 13.2 1.4 0 0 0 0.43 5.6 17.7 26.9 146.2 LegendAA
< -2 °C26.9 23.5 20.4 7.1 0.20 0 0 0 0.03 2.2 11.3 22.7 114.3 LegendAA
< -10 °C16 14 5.8 0.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.57 8.9 45.4 LegendAA
< -20 °C2.8 1.6 0.23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.63 5.2 LegendAA
< - 30 °C0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 LegendAA
Days with Rainfall:
>= 0.2 mm5.1 4.6 8 10.7 11.9 11 10.1 10.8 10.7 11.5 10.6 6.7 111.8 LegendAA
>= 5 mm1.5 1.5 2.2 4.1 4.6 5.2 3.9 4.3 4.3 4 3.8 2.6 42.1 LegendAA
>= 10 mm0.77 0.70 1.3 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.1 2 1 22.4 LegendAA
>= 25 mm0.10 0.10 0.13 0.23 0.27 0.43 0.77 0.83 0.60 0.27 0.40 0.17 4.3 LegendAA
Days With Snowfall:
>= 0.2 cm12.6 9.4 7.1 2.6 0.07 0 0 0 0 0.40 4 10.3 46.5 LegendAA
>= 5 cm2 1.4 1.3 0.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.37 1.8 7.2 LegendAA
>= 10 cm0.47 0.27 0.33 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.20 0.67 2 LegendAA
>= 25 cm0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LegendAA
Days with Precipitation:
>= 0.2 mm14.9 11.6 13.1 12.1 11.9 11 10.1 10.8 10.7 11.5 13.2 14.6 145.5 LegendAA
>= 5 mm3.5 2.7 3.5 4.5 4.6 5.2 3.9 4.3 4.3 4 4.3 4.3 49.2 LegendAA
>= 10 mm1.2 0.97 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.2 1.7 24.8 LegendAA
>= 25 mm0.13 0.17 0.23 0.27 0.27 0.43 0.77 0.83 0.60 0.27 0.40 0.23 4.6 LegendAA
Days with Snow Depth:
>= 1 cm22 20.3 11.8 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 2.8 15.8 74.3 LegendAA
>= 5 cm15.7 13.5 7.3 0.70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.93 8.2 46.3 LegendAA
>= 10 cm8.3 7.3 4.3 0.43 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.30 3.3 24 LegendAA
>= 20 cm2.1 1.6 0.47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.83 5 LegendAA
Wind:
Speed (km/h)17.8 16.5 17.1 17.1 14.1 12.9 12.3 11.2 12.2 13.3 15.6 16 14.7 LegendAA
Most Frequent DirectionSW N NW NW NW NW NW NW NW NW SW SW NW LegendAA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)77 77 97 81 71 63 61 71 77 92 80 70   Legend
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedSW W SW W SW NW W W S SW SW SW W Legend
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)115 105 124 111 109 107 135 93 92 104 122 109   Legend
Direction of Maximum GustE W SW W SW W NW SW SW NW SW S NW Legend
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h3.4 2.2 3.4 3.2 1.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.8 2.4 3.1 23.8 LegendAA
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h1.1 0.8 1 1 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.9 0.6 7.2 LegendAA
Degree Days:
Above 24 °C0 0 0 0 0.2 2.2 9.5 4.5 1 0 0 0 17.4 LegendAA
Above 18 °C0 0 0 1.1 12 44.2 96.7 75 22.1 1 0 0 252 LegendAA
Above 15 °C0 0 0.3 3.7 32.1 99.8 181.4 153.1 56.9 5.3 0.1 0 532.7 LegendAA
Above 10 °C0 0 3.1 18.9 108.4 235.3 335.8 305.3 165.2 39.6 4.8 0.2 1216.7 LegendAA
Above 5 °C1 1.1 16.6 76.4 244 384.8 490.8 460.3 309.6 132.3 32.1 4.6 2153.6 LegendAA
Above 0 °C13 15.6 63.7 194 398.2 534.8 645.8 615.3 459.6 276.8 112.9 29.6 3359.1 LegendAA
Below 0 °C207.9 168.9 77.3 6.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 18.3 119 598 LegendAA
Below 5 °C350.9 295.8 185.1 38.6 0.8 0 0 0 0 11 87.6 249 1218.8 LegendAA
Below 10 °C505 436 326.6 131.2 20.2 0.5 0 0 5.6 73.3 210.3 399.6 2108.3 LegendAA
Below 15 °C659.9 577.3 478.9 265.9 98.9 15 0.6 2.8 47.3 194 355.6 554.4 3250.6 LegendAA
Below 18 °C752.9 662.1 571.6 353.3 171.8 49.4 8.9 17.8 102.5 282.6 445.5 647.4 4065.7 LegendAA
Humidex:
Extreme Humidex14 14.8 29.2 37.9 41.8 45 50.3 45.6 48 35.4 28.6 23.9   Legend
Days with Humidex >= 300 0 0 0.3 3.1 8.6 16 14.2 5.4 0.1 0 0 47.6 LegendAA
Days with Humidex >= 350 0 0 0 0.3 2.7 6.5 4.6 1.2 0 0 0 15.4 LegendAA
Days with Humidex >= 400 0 0 0 0 0.4 1.5 0.8 0.1 0 0 0 2.9 LegendAA
Wind Chill:
Extreme Wind Chill-44.7 -38.9 -32.6 -25.4 -9.5 -2.6 2.5 -0.9 -8 -13.5 -25.4 -38.5   Legend
Days with Wind Chill < -2010.7 9 2.7 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 4.9 27.6 LegendAA
Days with Wind Chill < -302.3 1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 3.6 LegendAA
Days with Wind Chill < -400.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 LegendAA
Humidity:
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.4 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.9 LegendAA
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)81.7 81.3 81.2 78.8 80 82.6 84.5 88.6 89.5 87.1 84.7 83.7 83.6 LegendAA
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)74.3 70.8 65.4 56.5 53.9 55.1 53.1 56.2 59.4 62.8 71.2 75.5 62.8 LegendAA
Pressure:
Average Station Pressure (kPa)99.5 99.6 99.5 99.4 99.4 99.3 99.4 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.5 LegendAA
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)101.7 101.8 101.6 101.5 101.5 101.4 101.5 101.7 101.7 101.8 101.7 101.8 101.6 LegendAA
Visibility (hours with):
< 1 km9.3 14.9 12.3 4.3 4.9 5.5 2.3 2.6 7 10 10.4 18.3 101.7 LegendBB
1 to 9 km150 138.6 124 82.5 95.9 105.9 105.9 122.4 126.1 113.6 135.4 151.4 1451.7 LegendBB
> 9 km584.7 525.2 607.7 633.2 643.2 608.5 635.8 619 586.9 620.5 574.3 574.3 7213.3 LegendBB
Cloud Amount (hours with):
0 to 2 tenths137.1 142 197.4 188.2 208.1 197.3 228.6 226.8 218 198.2 114.9 122.7 2179.2 LegendBB
3 to 7 tenths103.8 106 117 126.8 151.7 189.4 222.3 206.7 167.6 146.9 107.4 102.3 1747.9 LegendBB
8 to 10 tenths503.1 430.6 429.6 405 384.2 333.3 293.2 310.5 334.4 399 497.8 519 4839.7 LegendBB
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years