Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
THUNDER BAY A
ONTARIO
Latitude: 48°22'10.000" N Longitude: 89°19'38.038" W Elevation: 199.00 m
Climate ID: 6048261 WMO ID: TC ID: YQT
Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -14.8 -12.0 -5.5 2.9 9.5 14.0 17.6 16.6 11.0 5.0 -3.0 -11.6 2.5 C
Standard Deviation 3.1 3.4 2.5 1.7 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.7 2.0 3.4 0.9 C
Daily Maximum (°C) -8.6 -5.6 0.3 9.0 16.4 20.6 24.2 23.1 17.1 10.4 1.7 -6.1 8.5 C
Daily Minimum (°C) -21.1 -18.4 -11.2 -3.3 2.5 7.3 11.0 10.1 4.9 -0.5 -7.7 -17.0 -3.6 C
Extreme Maximum (°C) 8.3 12.2 22.8 28.3 35.2 35.6 37.2 40.3 31.7 28.3 21.7 12.2
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1942/ 23 1976/ 25 1946/ 28 1942/ 24 1986/ 30 1956/ 12 1975/ 30 1983/ 07 1976/ 11 1943/ 08 1975/ 04 1962/ 03
Extreme Minimum (°C) -41.1 -40.0 -36.7 -22.2 -8.9 -2.8 0.0 -1.1 -8.3 -13.3 -30.6 -37.8
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1951/ 30 1951/ 01 1943/ 02 1954/ 04 1954/ 04 1949/ 07 1969/ 06 1976/ 29 1942/ 25 1942/ 28 1976/ 30 1976/ 13
Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 2.5 2.8 17.5 29.5 65.0 85.7 89.0 87.5 87.5 57.0 31.5 3.6 559.0 C
Snowfall (cm) 41 27 27 12 2 0 0 0 1 6 28 44 188 C
Precipitation (mm) 31.3 24.9 41.6 41.5 66.5 85.7 89.0 87.5 88.0 62.6 55.6 37.5 711.6 C
Average Snow Depth (cm) 31 31 24 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 9 C
Median Snow Depth (cm) 30 30 23 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14 8 C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 34 32 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 24 9 C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 25.4 17.8 26.7 69.3 76.2 49.3 53.8 87.1 131.2 47.8 63.0 42.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1975/ 10 1971/ 26 1957/ 14 1954/ 30 1971/ 24 1947/ 04 1973/ 27 1973/ 19 1977/ 08 1968/ 09 1973/ 21 1948/ 05
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 52 34 38 24 22 0 0 0 9 16 35 42
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1956/ 20 1951/ 26 1956/ 28 1956/ 06 1954/ 02 1942/ 01 1942/ 01 1941/ 01 1985/ 30 1954/ 31 1965/ 26 1977/ 08
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 51.6 33.5 41.9 69.3 76.2 49.3 53.8 87.1 131.2 47.8 63.0 42.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1956/ 20 1951/ 26 1957/ 14 1954/ 30 1971/ 24 1947/ 04 1973/ 27 1973/ 19 1977/ 08 1968/ 09 1973/ 21 1948/ 05
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 179 143 129 64 5 0 0 0 0 8 59 101
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1956/ 22 1956/ 01 1955/ 23 1955/ 01 1956/ 03 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1966/ 16 1985/ 29 1955/ 24
Days with Maximum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 27.1 22.1 14.3 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 11.6 24.1 100.9 C
> 0 °C 3.9 6.1 16.7 28.6 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 30.7 18.5 6.9 264.4 C
> 10 °C 0.0 0.1 1.1 11.7 26.5 29.7 31.0 31.0 27.9 15.8 2.5 0.1 177.2 C
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 8.0 15.9 26.1 23.0 7.5 0.9 0.1 0.0 82.4 C
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.9 2.5 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.8 C
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 0.1 0.3 1.4 6.7 20.5 29.4 31.0 30.9 25.1 13.2 2.8 0.6 162.0 C
<= 2 °C 31.0 28.3 30.9 27.4 14.7 2.1 0.0 0.4 9.2 22.3 28.7 31.0 225.8 C
<= 0 °C 30.9 28.0 29.7 23.3 10.5 0.6 0.0 0.1 4.9 17.8 27.2 30.4 203.3 C
< -2 °C 30.5 27.1 27.9 17.9 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 11.9 23.8 29.7 174.8 C
< -10 °C 27.3 22.6 15.8 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 10.0 23.6 102.0 C
< -20 °C 18.0 13.1 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 12.1 49.1 C
< - 30 °C 4.1 2.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.5 8.0 C
Days with Rainfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 0.57 0.87 3.4 6.6 10.3 13.4 12.7 12.6 13.2 10.7 5.1 1.1 90.5 C
>= 5 mm 0.09 0.13 1.3 1.9 4.1 5.7 5.3 5 4.5 4 1.9 0.18 34 C
>= 10 mm 0.09 0.09 0.65 0.91 2 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5 1.7 0.91 0.09 17.2 C
>= 25 mm 0.04 0 0.04 0.13 0.48 0.48 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.27 0.23 0.05 4.1 C
Days With Snowfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 12.6 10.3 9.4 3.9 0.61 0 0 0 0.13 2.3 9.1 13.1 61.3 C
>= 5 cm 2.4 1.7 1.9 0.70 0.13 0 0 0 0.04 0.27 1.9 3.1 12.2 C
>= 10 cm 0.91 0.74 0.52 0.39 0 0 0 0 0 0.09 0.73 1.2 4.6 C
>= 25 cm 0.09 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.14 C
Days with Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 11.9 10.0 10.9 8.8 10.5 13.4 12.7 12.6 13.3 11.7 11.6 12.3 139.5 C
>= 5 mm 1.8 1.4 2.7 2.6 4.3 5.7 5.3 5.0 4.5 4.1 3.2 2.5 43.1 C
>= 10 mm 0.5 0.6 1.3 1.4 2.0 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5 1.9 1.7 0.9 21.0 C
>= 25 mm 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.1 4.5 C
Days with Snow Depth
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 31 28.3 27.1 8 0.09 0 0 0 0 1 12.7 28.1 136.2 C
>= 5 cm 30.1 28.3 23.7 5.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 5.4 23.6 116.3 C
>= 10 cm 29 27.4 19.8 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 18.4 101.4 C
>= 20 cm 25.6 22.7 15.7 3.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 10.6 79 C
Wind
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 12.2 11.5 12.4 12.7 12.5 11.3 10.3 9.8 11.1 11.9 12.2 11.9 11.7 A
Most Frequent Direction W SW E E E E W SW SW W W W W A
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 68 71 76 68 72 64 74 80 64 68 80 64
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1962/ 26 1968/ 16 1960/ 21 1966/ 24 1959/ 12 1967/ 30 1999/ 04 1967/ 17 1967/ 23 1966/ 10 1965/ 03 1965/ 31
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 106 105 122 105 98 116 113 106 111 121 114 98
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1965/ 17 1968/ 16 1960/ 21 1968/ 23 1966/ 24 1967/ 20 1969/ 13 1968/ 16 1967/ 23 1962/ 16 1965/ 26 1965/ 31
Direction of Maximum Gust NW NW NW N W W S W NW W E E
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1965/ 17 1968/ 16 1960/ 21 1968/ 23 1966/ 24 1967/ 20 1969/ 13 1968/ 16 1967/ 23 1962/ 16 1965/ 26 1965/ 31
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 0.7 0.2 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 5.9 C
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 C
Degree Days
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.6 0.5 0 0 0 0 1.2 C
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 0 1.9 7.1 32.4 25.2 3.4 0 0 0 70 C
Above 15 °C 0 0 0 0.1 8.1 28.8 90 72.7 12.6 0.4 0 0 212.7 C
Above 10 °C 0 0 0 2 46.2 124.9 235.9 206.1 66.7 6.7 0.1 0 688.6 C
Above 5 °C 0 0 0.6 24.8 146.5 269.8 390.9 360.3 184 52.3 4.3 0.1 1433.6 C
Above 0 °C 0.4 2.6 14.1 108.5 293.7 419.8 545.9 515.3 331 160.5 30.5 2.2 2424.6 C
Below 0 °C 459.9 342.8 183.5 23.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 6.6 120.5 360.9 1497.5 C
Below 5 °C 614.5 481.5 324.9 89.5 8 0 0 0 3 53.4 244.2 513.8 2332.7 C
Below 10 °C 769.5 622.8 479.4 216.6 62.7 5.1 0 0.8 35.7 162.7 390.1 668.7 3,414 C
Below 15 °C 924.5 764.1 634.4 364.7 179.6 59 9.1 22.4 131.6 311.5 540 823.7 4764.4 C
Below 18 °C 1017.5 848.9 727.4 454.6 266.4 127.3 44.5 67.9 212.4 404.1 630 916.7 5717.6 C
Bright Sunshine
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Total Hours 114.4 133.5 159.1 219.0 265.0 264.1 283.4 258.3 162.9 127.7 88.8 91.7 2167.7 C
Days with measureable 22.8 22.8 24.7 26.6 28.0 28.2 30.1 29.1 25.9 25.5 20.3 21.3 305.2 C
% of possible daylight hours 41.9 46.5 43.2 53.5 56.2 55.0 58.4 58.2 43.0 37.9 31.9 35.2 46.7 C
Extreme Daily 9.2 10.6 11.3 14.0 15.3 15.6 15.5 14.4 13.1 10.3 9.3 8.3 C
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1994/ 24 1980/ 29 1975/ 31 1980/ 28 1973/ 28 1980/ 09 1976/ 01 1978/ 05 1976/ 01 1972/ 18 1974/ 06 1972/ 01
Humidex
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 7.2 15.4 17.5 29.7 38.7 43.1 46.2 45.4 41.2 32.3 21.7 11.8
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1973/ 25 2000/ 29 1990/ 31 1987/ 20 1969/ 28 1995/ 18 1975/ 30 1983/ 07 1998/ 05 1962/ 15 1975/ 04 1962/ 03
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.9 8.5 7.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.3 A
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 2.5 1.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.3 A
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 A
Wind Chill
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -58 -54 -43 -32 -16 -6 -1 -4 -11 -21 -40 -50
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1982/ 10 1996/ 02 1953/ 07 1954/ 02 1954/ 04 1995/ 08 1969/ 06 1976/ 29 1967/ 29 1996/ 31 1958/ 29 1967/ 31
Days with Wind Chill < -20 23.5 17.7 9.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 18.1 74.2 A
Days with Wind Chill < -30 13.8 8.8 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 8.2 33.6 A
Days with Wind Chill < -40 3.7 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 5.9 A
Humidity
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.1 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.7 A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 70.6 72.3 75.2 77.1 82.8 88.2 91.3 92.5 90 85.3 80.3 75.3 81.7 A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 61.6 59.1 56.4 48.6 50.1 56.9 59 59.8 60.8 60.9 65.2 65.4 58.7 A
Pressure
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 99.2 99.3 99.3 99.2 99.1 98.9 99 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.2 99.1 A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.8 101.9 101.8 101.6 101.5 101.3 101.4 101.5 101.5 101.6 101.6 101.8 101.6 A
Visibility (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 8.6 6.6 14.2 9.8 9.8 13.6 11.6 16.2 10.2 10.7 8.2 7.8 127.3 C
1 to 9 km 99.5 88.4 93.9 55.1 59.8 67.9 57.9 74.7 58.7 66 86 99.3 907.2 C
> 9 km 635.9 582.8 636 655 674.5 638.5 674.5 653 651.1 667.3 625.9 636.9 7731.3 C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 234.8 196.3 216.7 216.2 213.4 167 195.8 206.5 173.9 152.5 135.4 190 2298.2 C
3 to 7 tenths 110.2 111.9 124.8 138.5 172.2 188.6 216.4 206.4 165.3 144.5 103.5 114.3 1796.7 C
8 to 10 tenths 399 369.6 402.6 365.3 358.4 364.4 331.8 331.2 380.8 447 481.1 439.7 4670.9 C
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years