Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
THUNDER BAY A
ONTARIO
Latitude: 48°22'10.000" N Longitude: 89°19'38.038" W Elevation: 199.00 m
Climate ID: 6048261 WMO ID: TC ID: YQT
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Temperature:
Daily Average (°C)-14.8 -12 -5.5 2.9 9.5 14 17.6 16.6 11 5 -3 -11.6 2.5 LegendCC
Standard Deviation3.1 3.4 2.5 1.7 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.7 2 3.4 0.9 LegendCC
Daily Maximum (°C)-8.6 -5.6 0.3 9 16.4 20.6 24.2 23.1 17.1 10.4 1.7 -6.1 8.5 LegendCC
Daily Minimum (°C)-21.1 -18.4 -11.2 -3.3 2.5 7.3 11 10.1 4.9 -0.5 -7.7 -17 -3.6 LegendCC
Extreme Maximum (°C)8.3 12.2 22.8 28.3 35.2 35.6 37.2 40.3 31.7 28.3 21.7 12.2   Legend
Extreme Minimum (°C)-41.1 -40 -36.7 -22.2 -8.9 -2.8 0 -1.1 -8.3 -13.3 -30.6 -37.8   Legend
Precipitation:
Rainfall (mm)2.5 2.8 17.5 29.5 65 85.7 89 87.5 87.5 57 31.5 3.6 559 LegendCC
Snowfall (cm)41.2 26.9 26.8 12.4 1.7 0 0 0 0.5 6.1 27.8 44.1 187.6 LegendCC
Precipitation (mm)31.3 24.9 41.6 41.5 66.5 85.7 89 87.5 88 62.6 55.6 37.5 711.6 LegendCC
Average Snow Depth (cm)31 31 24 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 9 LegendCC
Median Snow Depth (cm)30 30 23 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14 8 LegendCC
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)34 32 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 24 9 LegendCC
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)25.4 17.8 26.7 69.3 76.2 49.3 53.8 87.1 131.2 47.8 63 42.7   Legend
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)51.6 33.5 37.8 24.1 21.6 0 0 0 9.2 16.3 34.5 42   Legend
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)51.6 33.5 41.9 69.3 76.2 49.3 53.8 87.1 131.2 47.8 63 42.7   Legend
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)179 143 129 64 5 0 0 0 0 8 59 101   Legend
Days with Maximum Temperature:
<= 0 °C27.1 22.1 14.3 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.27 11.6 24.1 100.9 LegendCC
> 0 °C3.9 6.1 16.7 28.6 31 30 31 31 30 30.7 18.5 6.9 264.4 LegendCC
> 10 °C0 0.09 1.1 11.7 26.5 29.7 31 31 27.9 15.8 2.5 0.05 177.2 LegendCC
> 20 °C0 0 0 0.91 8 15.9 26.1 23 7.5 0.86 0.05 0 82.4 LegendCC
> 30 °C0 0 0 0 0.74 0.87 2.5 1.5 0.22 0 0 0 5.8 LegendCC
> 35 °C0 0 0 0 0.04 0 0.13 0.04 0 0 0 0 0.21 LegendCC
Days with Minimum Temperature:
> 0 °C0.09 0.30 1.4 6.7 20.5 29.4 31 30.9 25.1 13.2 2.8 0.64 162 LegendCC
<= 2 °C31 28.3 30.9 27.4 14.7 2.1 0 0.35 9.2 22.3 28.7 31 225.8 LegendCC
<= 0 °C30.9 28 29.7 23.3 10.5 0.57 0 0.09 4.9 17.8 27.2 30.4 203.3 LegendCC
< -2 °C30.5 27.1 27.9 17.9 4.3 0 0 0 1.7 11.9 23.8 29.7 174.8 LegendCC
< -10 °C27.3 22.6 15.8 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 10 23.6 102 LegendCC
< -20 °C18 13.1 4.8 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 12.1 49.1 LegendCC
< - 30 °C4.1 2.3 0.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 1.5 8 LegendCC
Days with Rainfall:
>= 0.2 mm0.57 0.87 3.4 6.6 10.3 13.4 12.7 12.6 13.2 10.7 5.1 1.1 90.5 LegendCC
>= 5 mm0.09 0.13 1.3 1.9 4.1 5.7 5.3 5 4.5 4 1.9 0.18 34 LegendCC
>= 10 mm0.09 0.09 0.65 0.91 2 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5 1.7 0.91 0.09 17.2 LegendCC
>= 25 mm0.04 0 0.04 0.13 0.48 0.48 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.27 0.23 0.05 4.1 LegendCC
Days With Snowfall:
>= 0.2 cm12.6 10.3 9.4 3.9 0.61 0 0 0 0.13 2.3 9.1 13.1 61.3 LegendCC
>= 5 cm2.4 1.7 1.9 0.70 0.13 0 0 0 0.04 0.27 1.9 3.1 12.2 LegendCC
>= 10 cm0.91 0.74 0.52 0.39 0 0 0 0 0 0.09 0.73 1.2 4.6 LegendCC
>= 25 cm0.09 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.14 LegendCC
Days with Precipitation:
>= 0.2 mm11.9 10 10.9 8.8 10.5 13.4 12.7 12.6 13.3 11.7 11.6 12.3 139.5 LegendCC
>= 5 mm1.8 1.4 2.7 2.6 4.3 5.7 5.3 5 4.5 4.1 3.2 2.5 43.1 LegendCC
>= 10 mm0.48 0.57 1.3 1.4 2 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5 1.9 1.7 0.86 21 LegendCC
>= 25 mm0.09 0.04 0.13 0.13 0.48 0.48 0.78 0.78 0.83 0.27 0.32 0.14 4.5 LegendCC
Days with Snow Depth:
>= 1 cm31 28.3 27.1 8 0.09 0 0 0 0 1 12.7 28.1 136.2 LegendCC
>= 5 cm30.1 28.3 23.7 5.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 5.4 23.6 116.3 LegendCC
>= 10 cm29 27.4 19.8 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 18.4 101.4 LegendCC
>= 20 cm25.6 22.7 15.7 3.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 10.6 79 LegendCC
Wind:
Speed (km/h)12.2 11.5 12.4 12.7 12.5 11.3 10.3 9.8 11.1 11.9 12.2 11.9 11.7 LegendAA
Most Frequent DirectionW SW E E E E W SW SW W W W W LegendAA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)68 71 76 68 72 64 74 80 64 68 80 64   Legend
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)106 105 122 105 98 116 113 106 111 121 114 98   Legend
Direction of Maximum GustNW NW NW N W W S W NW W E E NW Legend
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h0.7 0.2 1 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 5.9 LegendCC
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h0.1 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 LegendCC
Degree Days:
Above 24 °C0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.6 0.5 0 0 0 0 1.2 LegendCC
Above 18 °C0 0 0 0 1.9 7.1 32.4 25.2 3.4 0 0 0 70 LegendCC
Above 15 °C0 0 0 0.1 8.1 28.8 90 72.7 12.6 0.4 0 0 212.7 LegendCC
Above 10 °C0 0 0 2 46.2 124.9 235.9 206.1 66.7 6.7 0.1 0 688.6 LegendCC
Above 5 °C0 0 0.6 24.8 146.5 269.8 390.9 360.3 184 52.3 4.3 0.1 1433.6 LegendCC
Above 0 °C0.4 2.6 14.1 108.5 293.7 419.8 545.9 515.3 331 160.5 30.5 2.2 2424.6 LegendCC
Below 0 °C459.9 342.8 183.5 23.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 6.6 120.5 360.9 1497.5 LegendCC
Below 5 °C614.5 481.5 324.9 89.5 8 0 0 0 3 53.4 244.2 513.8 2332.7 LegendCC
Below 10 °C769.5 622.8 479.4 216.6 62.7 5.1 0 0.8 35.7 162.7 390.1 668.7 3414 LegendCC
Below 15 °C924.5 764.1 634.4 364.7 179.6 59 9.1 22.4 131.6 311.5 540 823.7 4764.4 LegendCC
Below 18 °C1017.5 848.9 727.4 454.6 266.4 127.3 44.5 67.9 212.4 404.1 630 916.7 5717.6 LegendCC
Bright Sunshine:
Total Hours114.4 133.5 159.1 219 265 264.1 283.4 258.3 162.9 127.7 88.8 91.7 2167.7 LegendCC
Days with measureable22.8 22.8 24.7 26.6 28 28.2 30.1 29.1 25.9 25.5 20.3 21.3 305.2 LegendCC
% of possible daylight hours41.9 46.5 43.2 53.5 56.2 55 58.4 58.2 43 37.9 31.9 35.2 46.7 LegendCC
Extreme Daily9.2 10.6 11.3 14 15.3 15.6 15.5 14.4 13.1 10.3 9.3 8.3   LegendCC
Humidex:
Extreme Humidex7.2 15.4 17.5 29.7 38.7 43.1 46.2 45.4 41.2 32.3 21.7 11.8   Legend
Days with Humidex >= 300 0 0 0 1 2.9 8.5 7.4 1.6 0 0 0 21.3 LegendAA
Days with Humidex >= 350 0 0 0 0.1 0.6 2.5 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 5.3 LegendAA
Days with Humidex >= 400 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.5 0.3 0 0 0 0 0.9 LegendAA
Wind Chill:
Extreme Wind Chill-58.2 -54 -42.7 -32 -16.2 -5.8 -1.3 -4 -10.8 -20.6 -40 -49.7   Legend
Days with Wind Chill < -2023.5 17.7 9.5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.4 18.1 74.2 LegendAA
Days with Wind Chill < -3013.8 8.8 2.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 8.2 33.6 LegendAA
Days with Wind Chill < -403.7 1.2 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 5.9 LegendAA
Humidity:
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.1 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.7 LegendAA
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)70.6 72.3 75.2 77.1 82.8 88.2 91.3 92.5 90 85.3 80.3 75.3 81.7 LegendAA
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)61.6 59.1 56.4 48.6 50.1 56.9 59 59.8 60.8 60.9 65.2 65.4 58.7 LegendAA
Pressure:
Average Station Pressure (kPa)99.2 99.3 99.3 99.2 99.1 98.9 99 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.2 99.1 LegendAA
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)101.8 101.9 101.8 101.6 101.5 101.3 101.4 101.5 101.5 101.6 101.6 101.8 101.6 LegendAA
Visibility (hours with):
< 1 km8.6 6.6 14.2 9.8 9.8 13.6 11.6 16.2 10.2 10.7 8.2 7.8 127.3 LegendCC
1 to 9 km99.5 88.4 93.9 55.1 59.8 67.9 57.9 74.7 58.7 66 86 99.3 907.2 LegendCC
> 9 km635.9 582.8 636 655 674.5 638.5 674.5 653 651.1 667.3 625.9 636.9 7731.3 LegendCC
Cloud Amount (hours with):
0 to 2 tenths234.8 196.3 216.7 216.2 213.4 167 195.8 206.5 173.9 152.5 135.4 190 2298.2 LegendCC
3 to 7 tenths110.2 111.9 124.8 138.5 172.2 188.6 216.4 206.4 165.3 144.5 103.5 114.3 1796.7 LegendCC
8 to 10 tenths399 369.6 402.6 365.3 358.4 364.4 331.8 331.2 380.8 447 481.1 439.7 4670.9 LegendCC
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years