Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C) -18.2 -14.8 -7.3 2.7 10.6 16.1 19.2 17.5 11.6 4.8 -5.2 -15.4 1.8 D
Standard Deviation 3.9 4.1 3.2 2.2 2.6 1.7 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.6 3.2 3.9 1.4 D
Daily Maximum (°C) -12.8 -9.3 -1.8 8.2 16.3 21.6 24.9 23.2 16.9 9.5 -1.1 -10.5 7.1 D
Daily Minimum (°C) -23.5 -20.3 -12.8 -2.9 4.7 10.5 13.5 11.8 6.3 -0.0 -9.2 -20.3 -3.5 D
Extreme Maximum (°C) 8.2 8.1 15.0 29.2 36.1 36.7 35.0 37.5 36.5 26.1 22.8 6.3
Date (yyyy/dd) 1986/ 11 1981/ 15 1973/ 26 1977/ 30 1980/ 22 1988/ 11 1975/ 30 1983/ 04 1983/ 02 1976/ 03 1975/ 05 1980/ 27
Extreme Minimum (°C) -41.2 -39.4 -34.4 -25.6 -9.5 -1.3 2.8 0.5 -15.8 -16.4 -34.3 -39.4
Date (yyyy/dd) 1982/ 20 1974/ 14 1974/ 24 1975/ 02 1989/ 06 1989/ 04 1972/ 03 1982/ 28 1980/ 18 1984/ 30 1985/ 30 1973/ 31
Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm) 0.3 0.3 8.8 19.8 47.6 94.1 69.7 64.2 65.6 30.3 5.3 1.8 407.8 D
Snowfall (cm) 27.6 21.7 24.1 11.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 8.4 26.6 25.0 148.1 D
Precipitation (mm) 22.2 17.3 30.0 30.0 49.8 94.1 69.7 64.2 66.7 38.3 27.6 22.5 532.5 D
Average Snow Depth (cm) 19 23 21 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 12 7 D
Median Snow Depth (cm) 19 23 20 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 12 7 D
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 22 25 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 16 7 D
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 3.6 2.2 17.1 32.2 38.5 104.8 62.6 78.5 49.0 35.8 9.6 24.0
Date (yyyy/dd) 1990/ 10 1984/ 15 1982/ 30 1984/ 27 1978/ 25 1989/ 12 1990/ 03 1981/ 05 1973/ 24 1984/ 15 1990/ 21 1982/ 02
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 17.6 29.3 29.2 15.2 8.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 4.6 25.4 31.4 15.2
Date (yyyy/dd) 1980/ 10 1977/ 24 1972/ 06 1979/ 04 1979/ 11 1985/ 01 1972/ 01 1972/ 01 1984/ 24 1985/ 08 1986/ 08 1979/ 10
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 16.2 30.0 24.6 42.0 38.5 104.8 62.6 78.5 49.0 36.2 30.4 24.0
Date (yyyy/dd) 1980/ 10 1977/ 24 1972/ 06 1984/ 27 1978/ 25 1989/ 12 1990/ 03 1981/ 05 1973/ 24 1991/ 28 1986/ 08 1982/ 02
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 53 53 56 57 8 0 0 0 8 18 33 34
Date (yyyy/dd) 1974/ 30 1974/ 01 1974/ 03 1979/ 05 1979/ 11 1972/ 01 1972/ 01 1972/ 01 1984/ 25 1985/ 09 1986/ 09 1978/ 30
Days with Maximum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C 29.3 24.0 16.7 3.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 16.1 28.0 118.6 D
> 0 °C 1.7 4.3 14.3 26.8 30.9 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 29.8 13.9 3.0 246.7 D
> 10 °C 0.0 0.0 0.7 10.7 24.5 30.0 31.0 31.0 26.8 14.2 1.9 0.0 170.7 D
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 8.9 18.2 28.5 23.3 7.9 1.0 0.1 0.0 89.1 D
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.1 D
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 D
Days with Minimum Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C 0.0 0.1 1.5 8.5 24.3 29.8 31.0 31.0 27.0 15.2 2.4 0.2 170.8 D
<= 2 °C 31.0 28.3 31.0 25.6 10.0 0.8 0.0 0.2 5.7 20.4 28.9 31.0 212.7 D
<= 0 °C 31.0 28.2 29.6 21.5 6.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.0 15.8 27.6 30.8 194.5 D
< -2 °C 31.0 27.8 27.6 15.8 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 9.0 24.9 30.7 170.5 D
< -10 °C 28.5 23.6 17.8 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 11.3 26.1 110.7 D
< -20 °C 20.9 14.6 6.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 16.8 61.5 D
< - 30 °C 7.4 4.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 4.2 17.5 D
Days with Rainfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm 0.30 0.35 2.5 5.6 9.5 12.7 11.7 11.6 10.9 8.2 2.3 0.53 76.1 D
>= 5 mm 0 0 0.65 1.4 3 5.4 4.1 3.6 3.4 1.4 0.42 0.11 23.3 D
>= 10 mm 0 0 0.30 0.35 1.6 2.8 1.9 2 2.1 0.89 0 0.05 11.8 D
>= 25 mm 0 0 0 0.05 0.30 0.75 0.50 0.45 0.70 0.16 0 0 2.9 D
Days With Snowfall
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm 13.9 9.7 8.5 3.7 1 0.05 0 0 0.45 2.6 8.6 13.6 62 D
>= 5 cm 1.5 1 1.4 0.75 0.10 0 0 0 0 0.53 1.7 1.4 8.3 D
>= 10 cm 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.20 0 0 0 0 0 0.21 0.58 0.16 2.3 D
>= 25 cm 0 0.05 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.05 0 0.20 D
Days with Precipitation
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm 12.3 9.2 9.5 8.1 9.9 12.7 11.7 11.6 11.1 10.0 9.4 12.4 127.6 D
>= 5 mm 1.1 0.8 2.1 2.0 3.1 5.4 4.1 3.6 3.5 1.8 1.6 1.1 30.1 D
>= 10 mm 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.7 1.6 2.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 1.2 0.6 0.3 14.3 D
>= 25 mm 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.0 3.0 D
Days with Snow Depth
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm 31 28.3 28.8 7.4 0.30 0 0 0 0.05 2.3 16.2 29.7 143.9 D
>= 5 cm 31 27.9 26.6 5.3 0.20 0 0 0 0.05 0.95 10.8 26.1 128.8 D
>= 10 cm 26 25.6 23 3.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.45 6.2 18.2 103.1 D
>= 20 cm 11.6 15.7 15 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 6.6 52.1 D
Wind
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h) 11.8 11.4 12.1 12.5 12.6 12.6 11.1 11.4 13.2 13.9 13.1 12.1 12.3 D
Most Frequent Direction NW NW NW N N SE W W W S S S NW D
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 56 52 50 44 43 58 53 48 50 70 56 44
Date (yyyy/dd) 1988/ 22 1988/ 14 1982/ 13 1982/ 29 1984/ 17 1975/ 28 1973/ 02 1975/ 08 1978/ 11 1987/ 08 1978/ 05 1989/ 01
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 96 74 76 85 74 93 90 90 85 87 106 78
Date (yyyy/dd) 1986/ 11 1988/ 22 1988/ 25 1982/ 29 1988/ 01 1986/ 13 1975/ 17 1973/ 18 1986/ 25 1984/ 16 1986/ 08 1989/ 01
Direction of Maximum Gust NW W N S S W W W E S N NW
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.1 3.0 D
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4 D
Degree Days
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.9 2 1.8 0.2 0 0 0 5.4 D
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 0 8.3 24.9 58.1 40.6 4.3 0 0 0 136.2 D
Above 15 °C 0 0 0 0.4 23.7 66.3 132.9 96.7 16.4 0.6 0 0 337 D
Above 10 °C 0 0 0 6.2 81.9 184.5 285.3 233.6 80.1 9.1 0.2 0 880.9 D
Above 5 °C 0 0 0.6 34 186.3 332 440.3 387.9 200.7 57 4.7 0 1643.4 D
Above 0 °C 0 1.1 11.6 112 328.1 482 595.3 542.9 347.5 164.8 24.4 0.3 2,610 D
Below 0 °C 562.9 418.7 237.3 34.6 1 0 0 0 0.2 11.8 171.3 477.7 1915.4 D
Below 5 °C 717.9 558.8 381.3 106.6 14.1 0 0 0 3.3 58.9 301.6 632.4 2775.1 D
Below 10 °C 872.9 700.1 535.8 228.8 64.8 2.5 0 0.7 32.7 166 447.2 787.4 3838.7 D
Below 15 °C 1027.9 841.3 690.8 373 161.6 34.2 2.7 18.7 119 312.5 596.9 942.4 5121.1 D
Below 18 °C 1120.9 926.1 783.8 462.6 239.1 82.9 20.8 55.7 197 404.9 686.9 1035.4 6016.1 D
Soil Temperature
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Soil Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
at 5 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) -3.5 -3.2 -1.8 1.0 7.8 14.9 18.4 17.3 12.6 6.5 1.1 -2.4 5.7 D
at 5 cm depth (PM obs) (°C) -3.5 -3.1 -1.6 2.6 11.1 18.4 22.2 20.7 14.9 7.9 1.3 -2.3 7.4 D
at 10 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) -3.2 -3.0 -1.8 0.8 7.6 14.7 18.3 17.6 13.1 7.0 1.6 -2.0 5.9 D
at 10 cm depth (PM obs) (°C) -3.2 -3.0 -1.7 1.5 9.1 16.4 20.3 19.2 14.1 7.6 1.7 -2.0 6.7 D
at 20 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) -2.0 -2.2 -1.3 0.7 7.0 14.3 18.2 17.8 13.9 8.2 2.8 -0.7 6.4 D
at 20 cm depth (PM obs) (°C) -2.1 -2.2 -1.3 0.7 7.1 14.3 18.3 17.8 13.8 8.1 2.8 -0.7 6.4 D
at 50 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) -0.1 -0.8 -0.7 -0.0 4.1 11.3 15.6 16.3 14.0 9.5 4.9 1.5 6.3 D
at 100 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) 1.6 0.7 0.3 0.4 2.4 8.1 12.4 14.1 13.3 10.2 6.6 3.4 6.1 D
at 150 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) 3.2 2.2 1.6 1.4 2.3 6.4 10.3 12.5 12.6 10.7 8.0 5.2 6.4 D
at 300 cm depth (AM obs) (°C) 6.4 5.4 4.7 4.1 3.8 4.3 5.7 7.4 8.6 8.9 8.5 7.5 6.3 D
Bright Sunshine
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Total Hours 119.3 141.2 190.3 247.5 284.4 289.6 319.1 271.8 174.8 141.1 94.9 102.4 2376.4 D
Days with measurable 25.1 23.7 26.3 27.6 28.7 29.2 30.6 30.3 26.3 26.9 21.2 22.6 318.4 D
% of possible daylight hours 45.1 50.0 51.8 59.9 59.3 58.9 64.4 60.4 46.0 42.3 35.0 40.9 51.2 D
Extreme Daily 8.6 10.4 12.1 14.0 15.5 15.7 15.6 14.3 12.8 10.7 9.1 7.8 C
Date (yyyy/dd) 1982/ 30 1980/ 29 1976/ 31 1973/ 30 1973/ 28 1972/ 16 1973/ 08 1976/ 01 1985/ 01 1972/ 03 1981/ 02 1978/ 01
Humidex
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex 8.0 8.0 15.0 28.8 40.6 40.4 42.2 44.6 41.7 24.7 21.7 5.3
Date (yyyy/dd) 1986/ 11 1981/ 15 1973/ 26 1977/ 30 1986/ 28 1988/ 11 1981/ 06 1983/ 04 1983/ 02 1976/ 03 1975/ 05 1980/ 27
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 4.1 11.0 8.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.1 D
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 3.1 2.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.4 D
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 D
Wind Chill
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill -51 -48 -45 -32 -17 -4 2 -1 -7 -23 -44 -48
Date (yyyy/dd) 1972/ 14 1974/ 14 1974/ 23 1979/ 06 1989/ 05 1985/ 01 1972/ 03 1982/ 27 1976/ 27 1984/ 30 1985/ 30 1989/ 20
Days with Wind Chill < -20 26.1 20.6 12.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 7.4 22.6 90.5 D
Days with Wind Chill < -30 17.2 11.4 3.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 13.6 47.8 D
Days with Wind Chill < -40 6.0 2.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.0 12.1 D
Humidity
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.6 1.5 1 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.7 D
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 82.1 83.3 83.8 81.3 78 80.7 84.3 86.3 85.2 83.4 84.1 83.7 83 D
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 74.3 72.8 70.6 59.1 56.6 58.5 58.5 59.5 60 61.8 72.9 76.6 65.1 D
Pressure
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 99 99.2 98.9 98.9 98.7 98.5 98.6 98.7 98.8 98.8 98.9 99 98.8 D
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.9 102 101.8 101.6 101.4 101.1 101.3 101.3 101.5 101.5 101.7 101.9 101.6 D
Visibility (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
< 1 km 15.3 12.7 16.1 6.8 7.3 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.4 5.6 12.6 12.7 94 D
1 to 9 km 88.8 65.7 74.4 37 20.4 13.8 8.1 11.2 19.5 35.4 74.4 87.3 536 D
> 9 km 640 599.6 653.6 676.3 716.3 705.1 735 731.2 699.1 703 633 643.9 8,136 D
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1971 to 2000 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
0 to 2 tenths 261.2 237 268.5 282 252.7 229.6 276.2 267.4 216.2 217.9 186.6 263.6 2958.9 D
3 to 7 tenths 102.1 97.2 102.9 122.5 153.9 164.5 195 180.6 139.4 120.6 95.2 94.5 1568.3 D
8 to 10 tenths 380.7 343.8 372.7 315.5 337.4 325.9 272.9 296 364.4 405.5 438.2 385.9 4238.8 D

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1971 and 2000 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

GIMLI

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