Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
TORONTO LESTER B. PEARSON INT'L A *
ONTARIO
Latitude: 43°40'38.000" N Longitude: 79°37'50.000" W Elevation: 173.40 m
Climate ID: 6158733 WMO ID: 71624 TC ID: YYZ

* This station meets WMO standards for temperature and precipitation.

Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -5.5 -4.5 0.1 7.1 13.1 18.6 21.5 20.6 16.2 9.5 3.7 -2.2 8.2 A
Standard Deviation 3.2 2.3 2.0 1.6 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 2.6 1.0 A
Daily Maximum (°C) -1.5 -0.4 4.6 12.2 18.8 24.2 27.1 26.0 21.6 14.3 7.6 1.4 13.0 A
Daily Minimum (°C) -9.4 -8.7 -4.5 1.9 7.4 13.0 15.8 15.1 10.8 4.6 -0.2 -5.8 3.3 A
Extreme Maximum (°C) 17.6 14.9 25.6 31.1 34.4 36.7 37.6 38.3 36.7 31.6 25.0 20.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 1984/ 23 1945/ 28 1990/ 25 1962/ 16 1952/ 25 1988/ 07 1948/ 25 1953/ 02 2007/ 08 1950/ 01 1982/ 03
Extreme Minimum (°C) -31.3 -31.1 -28.9 -17.2 -5.6 0.6 3.9 1.1 -3.9 -8.3 -18.3 -31.1
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1981/ 04 1943/ 15 1950/ 04 1972/ 07 1966/ 07 1949/ 08 1968/ 30 1965/ 30 1965/ 27 1969/ 23 1949/ 26 1942/ 20
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 25.1 24.3 32.6 63.0 74.3 71.5 75.7 78.1 74.5 60.6 68.0 34.0 681.6 A
Snowfall (cm) 30 24 18 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 25 108 A
Precipitation (mm) 51.8 47.7 49.8 68.5 74.3 71.5 75.7 78.1 74.5 61.1 75.1 57.9 785.9 A
Average Snow Depth (cm) 6 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 A
Median Snow Depth (cm) 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 A
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 8 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 A
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 58.7 31.8 41.7 55.8 92.7 53.8 118.5 80.8 108.0 121.4 86.1 40.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1946/ 09 1975/ 24 1942/ 16 1992/ 11 1944/ 31 2000/ 13 1980/ 28 1970/ 30 1948/ 18 1954/ 15 1962/ 10 1962/ 06
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 37 40 32 27 2 0 0 0 0 7 34 28
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 23 1965/ 25 1964/ 10 1939/ 10 1976/ 07 1938/ 01 1938/ 01 1938/ 01 1938/ 01 1962/ 25 1940/ 30 1944/ 11
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 58.7 55.9 41.7 55.8 92.7 53.8 118.5 80.8 108.0 121.4 86.1 40.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1946/ 09 1965/ 25 1942/ 16 1992/ 11 1944/ 31 2000/ 13 1980/ 28 1970/ 30 1948/ 18 1954/ 15 1962/ 10 1962/ 06
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 67 48 30 13 0 0 0 0 0 13 18 36
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 15 2008/ 13 2008/ 09 1975/ 04 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1969/ 22 2002/ 18 2008/ 24
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 17.7 14.2 6.9 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 11.7 52.8 A
> 0 °C 13.3 14.1 24.1 29.5 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 31.0 28.3 19.3 312.5 A
> 10 °C 0.9 0.6 5.7 18.5 30.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.9 24.4 9.2 1.7 212.9 A
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.6 3.2 11.6 24.1 30.3 29.5 18.6 4.1 0.2 0.0 122.3 A
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 3.3 6.5 4.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.8 A
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 A
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 2.7 2.0 6.4 19.7 30.1 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.8 26.9 14.3 4.8 228.7 A
<= 2 °C 30.2 27.7 28.0 16.0 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 9.6 21.4 29.3 166.2 A
<= 0 °C 28.3 26.2 24.6 10.3 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 4.1 15.7 26.2 136.5 A
< -2 °C 25.8 23.3 19.5 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 9.5 21.7 106.0 A
< -10 °C 14.2 11.9 5.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 7.3 38.9 A
< -20 °C 2.6 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.9 A
< - 30 °C 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 A
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 5.4 4.6 7.4 11.3 12.5 10.8 10.4 10.2 10.5 12 11 7.1 113.2 A
>= 5 mm 1.6 1.7 2.1 4.2 4.8 5 4.1 4.2 4.5 3.8 4.1 2.6 42.6 A
>= 10 mm 0.77 0.93 1.1 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.4 2 2.4 1.1 22.5 A
>= 25 mm 0.07 0.10 0.03 0.23 0.27 0.40 0.83 0.90 0.60 0.20 0.50 0.10 4.2 A
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 12.1 9.4 6.8 2.4 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.30 3.4 10 44.4 A
>= 5 cm 1.7 1.5 1.2 0.23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.43 1.5 6.6 A
>= 10 cm 0.50 0.33 0.33 0.03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.13 0.50 1.8 A
>= 25 cm 0 0.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.07 A
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 15.1 11.6 12.4 12.5 12.5 10.8 10.4 10.2 10.5 12.1 13.1 14.8 145.9 A
>= 5 mm 3.3 3.2 3.3 4.5 4.8 5.0 4.1 4.2 4.5 3.8 4.5 3.9 49.0 A
>= 10 mm 1.4 1.3 1.5 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.0 2.6 1.7 25.0 A
>= 25 mm 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.2 4.5 A
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 21.2 20.7 11.8 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 2.7 13.8 71.5 A
>= 5 cm 13.9 12.6 6.9 0.57 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.77 6.1 40.9 A
>= 10 cm 7.3 6.7 4.1 0.23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.27 2.8 21.4 A
>= 20 cm 1.6 2.1 0.77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.67 5.1 A
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 17.6 17.0 16.9 16.8 14.4 13.2 12.9 11.9 12.7 14.0 15.7 16.7 15.0 A
Most Frequent Direction W W N N N N W N W W W W W A
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 77 77 97 81 71 63 61 71 77 92 80 76
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1958/ 17 1959/ 15 1979/ 06 1964/ 09 1980/ 20 1964/ 13 1958/ 31 1954/ 22 1954/ 16 1955/ 16 2008/ 28
Direction of Maximum Hourly Speed SW NW SW W SW NW E W W SW W SW
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1959/ 22 1958/ 17 1959/ 15 1979/ 06 1964/ 09 1980/ 20 1964/ 13 1958/ 31 1954/ 22 1954/ 16 1955/ 16 2008/ 28
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 115 105 124 115 109 107 135 115 106 104 122 109
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1978/ 26 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 2009/ 25 1983/ 02 1990/ 03 1956/ 01 2009/ 11 2010/ 22 1989/ 14 1955/ 17 1996/ 01
Direction of Maximum Gust E W SW W SW W NW NE W NW SW S
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1978/ 26 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 2009/ 25 1983/ 02 1990/ 03 1956/ 01 2009/ 11 2010/ 22 1989/ 14 1955/ 17 1996/ 01
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 3.1 2.4 2.8 2.9 1.4 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 1.8 2.5 2.8 22.2 A
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.8 0.4 6.1 A
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0.4 4.5 13.6 7.7 1.6 0 0 0 27.9 A
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 1.3 13 56.9 112.4 91.1 28.6 2.1 0 0 305.5 A
Above 15 °C 0 0 0.3 4.8 34 118.3 200.3 173.6 71.4 8.4 0.1 0 611.2 A
Above 10 °C 0.2 0 3.2 25.3 113.9 258.2 355 327.2 189.8 46.7 5 0.4 1324.6 A
Above 5 °C 2.2 1.3 18.4 91.6 252.1 407.9 510 482.2 336.2 146.4 36.7 5.3 2290.2 A
Above 0 °C 18 16.8 71 215.8 406.8 557.9 665 637.2 486.1 294.5 125.9 35 3,530 A
Below 0 °C 188.1 144.9 69 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 14.3 102.6 523.1 A
Below 5 °C 327.3 270.6 171.5 29.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 6.9 75.1 227.9 1109.4 A
Below 10 °C 480.3 410.4 311.2 113.5 17.1 0.2 0 0 3.6 62.3 193.4 378 1,970 A
Below 15 °C 635.1 551.6 463.4 243.1 92.2 10.3 0.3 1.4 35.2 179 338.5 532.7 3082.8 A
Below 18 °C 728.1 636.3 556 329.6 164.2 38.9 5.4 12 82.5 265.7 428.4 625.7 3872.8 A
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Daily 9.3 10.5 12.1 13.6 14.7 15.0 14.8 14.2 13.1 10.7 9.7 8.8
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2000/ 28 2008/ 28 2000/ 31 1999/ 30 1999/ 29 1997/ 27 1998/ 05 1999/ 01 1999/ 02 1997/ 01 1998/ 03 1998/ 01
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 19.0 14.8 29.2 37.9 42.6 45.0 50.3 46.6 48.0 39.1 28.6 23.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 1984/ 23 1998/ 30 1990/ 25 2006/ 30 1957/ 17 1995/ 14 2006/ 01 1953/ 01 2007/ 08 1961/ 03 1982/ 03
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.9 9.3 16.9 14.8 5.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 50.3 A
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.7 7.3 5.5 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 18.4 A
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 A
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -45 -39 -36 -25 -10 0 0 0 -8 -14 -25 -38
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1981/ 04 1967/ 06 2003/ 03 1972/ 07 1963/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1965/ 27 1969/ 23 1958/ 30 1980/ 25
Days with Wind Chill < -20 9.1 7.5 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.0 23.0 A
Days with Wind Chill < -30 2.2 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.1 A
Days with Wind Chill < -40 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 A
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.4 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.9 A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 80.8 79.3 78.1 75.4 77.2 79.8 81.9 85.7 87.4 85.2 83.3 81.8 81.3 A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 72 68.4 61.4 54.4 53.5 54.9 53.3 55.8 58.5 62.1 69.2 72.5 61.3 A
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 99.5 99.6 99.6 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.6 99.7 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.5 A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.7 101.8 101.7 101.5 101.5 101.4 101.5 101.6 101.7 101.8 101.7 101.7 101.6 A
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 7.7 15.6 8.4 4.1 4.5 3.7 1.4 0.9 3.6 7.6 9.1 8.6 75.1 C
1 to 9 km 142.6 120.2 100.4 73.7 72.3 71.6 69.2 81.6 88.2 84.4 114.1 126.7 1144.9 C
> 9 km 593.7 542.8 635.3 642.2 667.3 644.7 673.4 661.5 628.2 652 596.8 608.7 7546.6 C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 139 149.6 205.9 190.8 212.7 206.8 226.5 246 242.7 197.9 129.7 125.2 2272.9 C
3 to 7 tenths 93.8 101.4 114.4 116.6 145.1 179.9 214.2 198.8 154.4 141.9 108.8 98.6 1667.7 C
8 to 10 tenths 511.2 427.6 423.8 412.6 386.2 333.3 303.3 299.2 322.9 404.2 481.4 520.2 4825.9 C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-FreeCode
Average Date of Last Spring Frost April 30 LegendAA
Average Date of First Fall Frost October 16 LegendAA
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 168 Days LegendAA
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateMay 19May 13May 10May 04Apr 29Apr 28Apr 16
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateSep 22Sep 29Oct 03Oct 09Oct 16Oct 19Oct 28
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days) 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
Days134142149155165170185
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years