Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
TORONTO
ONTARIO
Latitude: 43°40'00.000" N Longitude: 79°24'00.000" W Elevation: 112.50 m
Climate ID: 6158350 WMO ID: 71266 TC ID:
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Temperature:
Daily Average (°C)-3.7 -2.6 1.4 7.9 14.1 19.4 22.3 21.5 17.2 10.7 4.9 -0.5 9.4 Legend CC
Standard Deviation2.8 2.2 1.7 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 2.7 1.3 Legend CC
Daily Maximum (°C)-0.7 0.4 4.7 11.5 18.4 23.8 26.6 25.5 21 14 7.5 2.1 12.9 Legend CC
Daily Minimum (°C)-6.7 -5.6 -1.9 4.1 9.9 14.9 18 17.4 13.4 7.4 2.3 -3.1 5.9 Legend CC
Extreme Maximum (°C)16.1 14.4 26.7 32.2 34.4 36.7 40.6 38.9 37.8 30 23.9 19.9   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1967/ 25 1976/ 25 1946/ 28 1842/ 22 1962/ 18 1964/ 30 1936/ 08 1918/ 13 1953/ 02 1963/ 07 1950/ 01 1982/ 03  
Extreme Minimum (°C)-32.8 -31.7 -26.7 -15 -3.9 -2.2 3.9 4.4 -2.2 -8.9 -20.6 -30   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1859/ 10 1855/ 05 1868/ 03 1923/ 01 1854/ 06 1842/ 10 1843/ 12 1855/ 18 1842/ 22 1844/ 31 1875/ 30 1933/ 29  
Precipitation:
Rainfall (mm)29.1 29.7 33.6 61.1 82 70.9 63.9 81.1 84.7 64.3 75.4 38.2 714 Legend CC
Snowfall (cm)37.2 27 19.8 5 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 8.3 24.1 121.5 Legend CC
Precipitation (mm)61.5 55.4 53.7 68 82 70.9 63.9 81.1 84.7 64.4 84.1 61.5 831.1 Legend CC
Average Snow Depth (cm)7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Legend DD
Median Snow Depth (cm)6 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 Legend DD
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)7 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 Legend CC
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)63.5 43.4 43.7 59.7 68.6 63.5 98.6 93.5 87.9 86.9 79.5 49.5   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1843/ 31 1855/ 13 1881/ 19 1850/ 03 1894/ 21 1957/ 28 1897/ 27 1905/ 15 1843/ 14 1954/ 15 1861/ 02 1870/ 05  
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)39.9 45.7 40.6 21.1 7.6 0 0 0 0 12.2 30.5 48.3   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 23 1846/ 20 1870/ 27 1901/ 20 1875/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1969/ 21 1950/ 24 1944/ 11  
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)52.3 52.6 43.7 59.7 68.6 63.5 98.6 93.5 87.9 86.9 79.5 49.5   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1932/ 01 1965/ 25 1881/ 19 1850/ 03 1894/ 21 1957/ 28 1897/ 27 1905/ 15 1843/ 14 1954/ 15 1861/ 02 1870/ 05  
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)65 38 33 19 3 0 0 0 0 13 20 41   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 15 1971/ 14 2005/ 02 1979/ 09 1963/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1969/ 21 1997/ 16 1977/ 12  
Days with Maximum Temperature:
<= 0 °C15.6 12.5 6.7 0.39 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 9.6 45.9 Legend CC
> 0 °C15.4 15.7 24.3 29.6 31 30 31 31 30 31 28.9 21.5 319.4 Legend CC
> 10 °C0.70 0.65 5.2 17.3 30 30 31 31 30 25.1 8.6 1.7 211.1 Legend CC
> 20 °C0 0 0.48 2.3 10.5 23.7 30.2 29.5 17.3 3.2 0.14 0 117.2 Legend CC
> 30 °C0 0 0 0.09 0.43 2.5 5.4 2.7 0.64 0 0 0 11.8 Legend CC
> 35 °C0 0 0 0 0 0.13 0.45 0.14 0 0 0 0 0.72 Legend CC
Days with Minimum Temperature:
> 0 °C4.6 6 12.5 25.6 31 30 31 31 30 30.3 21.6 10.9 264.4 Legend CC
<= 2 °C29 25.9 24 9.4 0.22 0 0 0 0 2.6 14.2 25.9 131.2 Legend CC
<= 0 °C26.4 22.3 18.5 4.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.73 8.4 20.1 100.8 Legend CC
< -2 °C22.8 19.3 14.3 1.7 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 4.2 15.9 78.2 Legend CC
< -10 °C9.1 6.6 2.4 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.09 3.7 21.9 Legend CC
< -20 °C0.96 0.13 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.09 1.2 Legend CC
< - 30 °C0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Legend CC
Days with Rainfall:
>= 0.2 mm5.4 4.8 7.9 11.2 12.7 11 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 10.9 7 114.1 Legend CC
>= 5 mm1.7 1.7 2.2 4.2 5.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.4 2.4 43.9 Legend CC
>= 10 mm1 1.1 0.96 1.9 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.9 2 2.8 1.3 24 Legend CC
>= 25 mm0.19 0.15 0.04 0.22 0.57 0.52 0.32 0.91 0.68 0.17 0.50 0.12 4.4 Legend CC
Days With Snowfall:
>= 0.2 cm12 8.7 6.5 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 3.1 8.4 40.9 Legend CC
>= 5 cm2.5 1.6 1.2 0.35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.46 1.6 7.7 Legend CC
>= 10 cm0.81 0.73 0.38 0.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.15 0.46 2.7 Legend CC
>= 25 cm0.08 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 Legend CC
Days with Precipitation:
>= 0.2 mm15.4 11.6 12.6 12.6 12.7 11 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 13 13.2 145.5 Legend CC
>= 5 mm4 3.2 3.5 4.6 5.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.5 5 3.9 51.4 Legend CC
>= 10 mm1.7 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.9 2 3.1 1.9 27 Legend CC
>= 25 mm0.23 0.27 0.08 0.26 0.57 0.52 0.32 0.91 0.68 0.17 0.54 0.15 4.7 Legend CC
Days with Snow Depth:
>= 1 cm20 19.4 11.4 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.9 10.7 64.5 Legend DD
>= 5 cm15 14.1 7.2 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.77 5.8 43.3 Legend DD
>= 10 cm9.8 7.2 4.1 0.08 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.46 2.8 24.5 Legend DD
>= 20 cm1.9 1.6 0.81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.88 5.2 Legend DD
Wind:
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)64 69 129 64 80 43 48 37 42 55 64 72   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1964/ 25 1964/ 23 1964/ 05 1964/ 21 1964/ 09 1964/ 10 1960/ 30 1968/ 14 1964/ 24 1965/ 31 1963/ 23 1963/ 24  
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedSW SW SW E SW W W W W W SW SW SW Legend
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)0 0 61 47 0 0 48 0 0 0 0 0   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
    1955/ 22 1955/ 09     1961/ 03            
Direction of Maximum GustCALM CALM SW W CALM CALM W CALM CALM CALM CALM CALM CALM Legend
Degree Days:
Above 24 °C0 0 0 0.1 0.4 4.9 17.7 10.7 2 0 0 0 35.6 Legend CC
Above 18 °C0 0 0.1 1.7 15.3 66.9 136.9 113.6 38.7 1.5 0 0 374.6 Legend CC
Above 15 °C0 0 0.7 5.2 41.2 136.9 227.5 202.1 88.8 9.4 0.1 0 711.8 Legend CC
Above 10 °C0 0 5.3 29.8 136.6 280.8 382.5 356.5 217.7 62.4 7.6 1.1 1480.2 Legend CC
Above 5 °C2.4 3.5 24.9 106.9 283.4 430.8 537.5 511.5 366.1 180 50 9.4 2506.4 Legend CC
Above 0 °C24.6 31.5 91.4 237.8 438.3 580.8 692.5 666.5 516.1 332.3 155.5 56.9 3824.1 Legend CC
Below 0 °C140.5 104.1 47.9 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.2 71.5 373.7 Legend CC
Below 5 °C273.3 217.2 136.5 21.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 2.8 51.7 179 882.1 Legend CC
Below 10 °C426 354.9 271.8 94.4 8.3 0.1 0 0 1.6 40.1 159.3 325.7 1682 Legend CC
Below 15 °C580.9 495.9 422.2 219.8 67.8 6.1 0.1 0.6 22.7 142.1 301.8 479.6 2739.7 Legend CC
Below 18 °C673.9 580.6 514.6 306.3 135 26.2 2.4 5.1 62.5 227.3 391.7 572.6 3498.2 Legend CC
Bright Sunshine:
Total Hours85.9 111.3 161 180 227.7 259.6 279.6 245.6 194.4 154.3 88.9 78.1 2066.3 Legend DD
Days with measureable21.2 21.3 25.1 26.4 28.3 28.2 30.1 29.5 27.2 27.4 20.6 19.7 304.8 Legend DD
% of possible daylight hours29.7 37.7 43.6 44.8 50 56.3 59.8 56.7 51.7 45.1 30.5 28 44.5 Legend DD
Extreme Daily9.3 10.3 11.5 13.3 15 14.6 14.3 13.9 12.3 10.4 10.4 8.9   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 25 1972/ 20 1973/ 27 1975/ 22 1996/ 30 1999/ 26 1997/ 19 1963/ 05 1970/ 01 1986/ 20 1975/ 04 2000/ 20  
Humidex:
Extreme Humidex15.7 12.2 21.7 31.6 39.8 44.5 43 42.6 43.8 31.2 26.1 17.7   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1967/ 25 1957/ 25 1963/ 30 1962/ 27 1969/ 29 1957/ 18 1964/ 28 1955/ 01 1953/ 02 1968/ 01 1961/ 03 1966/ 08  
Wind Chill:
Extreme Wind Chill-36.6 -34 -26 -17 -7.9 0 0 0 0 -7.5 -17.2 -33.6   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1963/ 24 1963/ 07 1968/ 03 1964/ 04 1963/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1965/ 29 1958/ 29 1962/ 30  
Radiation:
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2)11.5 17 24.2 28.7 32.1 34.9 32.3 28.9 24.7 18.3 12.3 8.9   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1978/ 30 1980/ 29 1963/ 31 1978/ 30 1964/ 25 1995/ 15 1964/ 05 1959/ 01 1976/ 02 1974/ 03 1958/ 01 1990/ 02  
Extreme Diffuse - RF2 (MJ/m2)5.9 7.8 11.6 12.6 14.4 15.9 15.8 11.5 9.7 7.5 5.8 4.1   Legend
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1958/ 18 1958/ 18 1959/ 29 1957/ 28 1957/ 30 1958/ 15 1956/ 04 1957/ 14 1958/ 06 1957/ 11 1956/ 03 1956/ 13  
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-Free:Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost April 13 LegendCC
Average Date of First Fall Frost November 03 LegendCC
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 203 Days LegendCC
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateMay 15May 07May 04Apr 28Apr 21Apr 18Apr 10
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateOct 01Oct 09Oct 13Oct 19Oct 25Oct 29Nov 10
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days) 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
Days144158163172185191205
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years