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Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-3.7-2.61.47.914.119.422.321.517.210.74.9-0.59.4C
Standard Deviation2.82.21.71.41.81.31.41.31.41.21.42.71.3C
Daily Maximum (°C)-0.70.44.711.518.423.826.625.521.014.07.52.112.9C
Daily Minimum (°C)-6.7-5.6-1.94.19.914.918.017.413.47.42.3-3.15.9C
Extreme Maximum (°C)16.114.426.732.234.436.740.638.937.830.023.919.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1967/ 251976/ 251946/ 281842/ 221962/ 181964/ 301936/ 081918/ 131953/ 021963/ 071950/ 011982/ 03
Extreme Minimum (°C)-32.8-31.7-26.7-15.0-3.9-2.23.94.4-2.2-8.9-20.6-30.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1859/ 101855/ 051868/ 031923/ 011854/ 061842/ 101843/ 121855/ 181842/ 221844/ 311875/ 301933/ 29
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)29.129.733.661.182.070.963.981.184.764.375.438.2714.0C
Snowfall (cm)37.227.019.85.00.00.00.00.00.00.18.324.1121.5C
Precipitation (mm)61.555.453.768.082.070.963.981.184.764.484.161.5831.1C
Average Snow Depth (cm)7630000000022D
Median Snow Depth (cm)6620000000021D
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)7510000000041C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)63.543.443.759.768.663.598.693.587.986.979.549.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1843/ 311855/ 131881/ 191850/ 031894/ 211957/ 281897/ 271905/ 151843/ 141954/ 151861/ 021870/ 05
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)39.945.740.621.17.60.00.00.00.012.230.548.3
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 231846/ 201870/ 271901/ 201875/ 011840/ 011840/ 011840/ 011840/ 011969/ 211950/ 241944/ 11
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)52.352.643.759.768.663.598.693.587.986.979.549.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1932/ 011965/ 251881/ 191850/ 031894/ 211957/ 281897/ 271905/ 151843/ 141954/ 151861/ 021870/ 05
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)6538331930000132041
Date (yyyy/dd)1999/ 151971/ 142005/ 021979/ 091963/ 011955/ 011955/ 011955/ 011955/ 011969/ 211997/ 161977/ 12
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C15.612.56.70.390000001.19.645.9C
> 0 °C15.415.724.329.631303131303128.921.5319.4C
> 10 °C0.700.655.217.3303031313025.18.61.7211.1C
> 20 °C000.482.310.523.730.229.517.33.20.140117.2C
> 30 °C0000.090.432.55.42.70.6400011.8C
> 35 °C000000.130.450.1400000.72C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C4.6612.525.6313031313030.321.610.9264.4C
<= 2 °C2925.9249.40.2200002.614.225.9131.2C
<= 0 °C26.422.318.54.4000000.738.420.1100.8C
< -2 °C22.819.314.31.7000000.054.215.978.2C
< -10 °C9.16.62.40.040000000.093.721.9C
< -20 °C0.960.130.04000000000.091.2C
< - 30 °C0000000000000C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm5.44.87.911.212.71110.410.211.111.710.97114.1C
>= 5 mm1.71.72.24.25.14.44.34.34.74.54.42.443.9C
>= 10 mm11.10.961.92.82.42.42.52.922.81.324C
>= 25 mm0.190.150.040.220.570.520.320.910.680.170.500.124.4C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm128.76.52.2000000.083.18.440.9C
>= 5 cm2.51.61.20.350000000.461.67.7C
>= 10 cm0.810.730.380.120000000.150.462.7C
>= 25 cm0.08000000000000.08C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm15.411.612.612.612.71110.410.211.111.71313.2145.5C
>= 5 mm43.23.54.65.14.44.34.34.74.553.951.4C
>= 10 mm1.71.71.52.12.82.42.42.52.923.11.927C
>= 25 mm0.230.270.080.260.570.520.320.910.680.170.540.154.7C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm2019.411.41.20000001.910.764.5D
>= 5 cm1514.17.20.380000000.775.843.3D
>= 10 cm9.87.24.10.080000000.462.824.5D
>= 20 cm1.91.60.8100000000.040.885.2D
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)6469129648043483742556472
Date (yyyy/dd)1964/ 251964/ 231964/ 051964/ 211964/ 091964/ 101960/ 301968/ 141964/ 241965/ 311963/ 231963/ 24
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedSWSWSWESWWWWWWSWSW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)006147004800000
Date (yyyy/dd)1955/ 221955/ 091961/ 03
Direction of Maximum GustCALMCALMSWWCALMCALMWCALMCALMCALMCALMCALM
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C0000.10.44.917.710.7200035.6C
Above 18 °C000.11.715.366.9136.9113.638.71.500374.6C
Above 15 °C000.75.241.2136.9227.5202.188.89.40.10711.8C
Above 10 °C005.329.8136.6280.8382.5356.5217.762.47.61.11480.2C
Above 5 °C2.43.524.9106.9283.4430.8537.5511.5366.1180509.42506.4C
Above 0 °C24.631.591.4237.8438.3580.8692.5666.5516.1332.3155.556.93824.1C
Below 0 °C140.5104.147.92.50000007.271.5373.7C
Below 5 °C273.3217.2136.521.60.100002.851.7179882.1C
Below 10 °C426354.9271.894.48.30.1001.640.1159.3325.71,682C
Below 15 °C580.9495.9422.2219.867.86.10.10.622.7142.1301.8479.62739.7C
Below 18 °C673.9580.6514.6306.313526.22.45.162.5227.3391.7572.63498.2C
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Total Hours85.9111.3161.0180.0227.7259.6279.6245.6194.4154.388.978.12066.3D
Days with measurable21.221.325.126.428.328.230.129.527.227.420.619.7304.8D
% of possible daylight hours29.737.743.644.850.056.359.856.751.745.130.528.044.5D
Extreme Daily9.310.311.513.315.014.614.313.912.310.410.48.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 251972/ 201973/ 271975/ 221996/ 301999/ 261997/ 191963/ 051970/ 011986/ 201975/ 042000/ 20
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex15.712.221.731.639.844.543.042.643.831.226.117.7
Date (yyyy/dd)1967/ 251957/ 251963/ 301962/ 271969/ 291957/ 181964/ 281955/ 011953/ 021968/ 011961/ 031966/ 08
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-37-34-26-17-80000-8-17-34
Date (yyyy/dd)1963/ 241963/ 071968/ 031964/ 041963/ 011953/ 011953/ 011953/ 011953/ 011965/ 291958/ 291962/ 30
Radiation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Radiation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2)11172429323532292518129
Date (yyyy/dd)1978/ 301980/ 291963/ 311978/ 301964/ 251995/ 151964/ 051959/ 011976/ 021974/ 031958/ 011990/ 02
Extreme Diffuse - RF2 (MJ/m2)6812131416161210764
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 181958/ 181959/ 291957/ 281957/ 301958/ 151956/ 041957/ 141958/ 061957/ 111956/ 031956/ 13
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost Apr 13 C
Average Date of First Fall Frost Nov 03 C
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 203 Days C
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateMay 15May 07May 04Apr 28Apr 21Apr 18Apr 10
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateOct 01Oct 09Oct 13Oct 19Oct 25Oct 29Nov 10
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days144158163172185191205

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

TORONTO

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