Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
TORONTO
ONTARIO
Latitude: 43°40'00.000" N Longitude: 79°24'00.000" W Elevation: 112.50 m
Climate ID: 6158350 WMO ID: 71266 TC ID:
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -3.7 -2.6 1.4 7.9 14.1 19.4 22.3 21.5 17.2 10.7 4.9 -0.5 9.4 C
Standard Deviation 2.8 2.2 1.7 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 2.7 1.3 C
Daily Maximum (°C) -0.7 0.4 4.7 11.5 18.4 23.8 26.6 25.5 21.0 14.0 7.5 2.1 12.9 C
Daily Minimum (°C) -6.7 -5.6 -1.9 4.1 9.9 14.9 18.0 17.4 13.4 7.4 2.3 -3.1 5.9 C
Extreme Maximum (°C) 16.1 14.4 26.7 32.2 34.4 36.7 40.6 38.9 37.8 30.0 23.9 19.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1967/ 25 1976/ 25 1946/ 28 1842/ 22 1962/ 18 1964/ 30 1936/ 08 1918/ 13 1953/ 02 1963/ 07 1950/ 01 1982/ 03
Extreme Minimum (°C) -32.8 -31.7 -26.7 -15.0 -3.9 -2.2 3.9 4.4 -2.2 -8.9 -20.6 -30.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1859/ 10 1855/ 05 1868/ 03 1923/ 01 1854/ 06 1842/ 10 1843/ 12 1855/ 18 1842/ 22 1844/ 31 1875/ 30 1933/ 29
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 29.1 29.7 33.6 61.1 82.0 70.9 63.9 81.1 84.7 64.3 75.4 38.2 714.0 C
Snowfall (cm) 37 27 20 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 24 122 C
Precipitation (mm) 61.5 55.4 53.7 68.0 82.0 70.9 63.9 81.1 84.7 64.4 84.1 61.5 831.1 C
Average Snow Depth (cm) 7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 D
Median Snow Depth (cm) 6 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 D
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 7 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 63.5 43.4 43.7 59.7 68.6 63.5 98.6 93.5 87.9 86.9 79.5 49.5
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1843/ 31 1855/ 13 1881/ 19 1850/ 03 1894/ 21 1957/ 28 1897/ 27 1905/ 15 1843/ 14 1954/ 15 1861/ 02 1870/ 05
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 40 46 41 21 8 0 0 0 0 12 31 48
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 23 1846/ 20 1870/ 27 1901/ 20 1875/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1840/ 01 1969/ 21 1950/ 24 1944/ 11
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 52.3 52.6 43.7 59.7 68.6 63.5 98.6 93.5 87.9 86.9 79.5 49.5
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1932/ 01 1965/ 25 1881/ 19 1850/ 03 1894/ 21 1957/ 28 1897/ 27 1905/ 15 1843/ 14 1954/ 15 1861/ 02 1870/ 05
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 65 38 33 19 3 0 0 0 0 13 20 41
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 15 1971/ 14 2005/ 02 1979/ 09 1963/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1969/ 21 1997/ 16 1977/ 12
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 15.6 12.5 6.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 9.6 45.9 C
> 0 °C 15.4 15.7 24.3 29.6 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 31.0 28.9 21.5 319.4 C
> 10 °C 0.7 0.7 5.2 17.3 30.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 25.1 8.6 1.7 211.1 C
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.3 10.5 23.7 30.2 29.5 17.3 3.2 0.1 0.0 117.2 C
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 2.5 5.4 2.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 C
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 4.6 6.0 12.5 25.6 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 30.3 21.6 10.9 264.4 C
<= 2 °C 29.0 25.9 24.0 9.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 14.2 25.9 131.2 C
<= 0 °C 26.4 22.3 18.5 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 8.4 20.1 100.8 C
< -2 °C 22.8 19.3 14.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.2 15.9 78.2 C
< -10 °C 9.1 6.6 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3.7 21.9 C
< -20 °C 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 C
< - 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 5.4 4.8 7.9 11.2 12.7 11 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 10.9 7 114.1 C
>= 5 mm 1.7 1.7 2.2 4.2 5.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.4 2.4 43.9 C
>= 10 mm 1 1.1 0.96 1.9 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.9 2 2.8 1.3 24 C
>= 25 mm 0.19 0.15 0.04 0.22 0.57 0.52 0.32 0.91 0.68 0.17 0.50 0.12 4.4 C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 12 8.7 6.5 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 3.1 8.4 40.9 C
>= 5 cm 2.5 1.6 1.2 0.35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.46 1.6 7.7 C
>= 10 cm 0.81 0.73 0.38 0.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.15 0.46 2.7 C
>= 25 cm 0.08 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 15.4 11.6 12.6 12.6 12.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 13.0 13.2 145.5 C
>= 5 mm 4.0 3.2 3.5 4.6 5.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.5 5.0 3.9 51.4 C
>= 10 mm 1.7 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.0 3.1 1.9 27.0 C
>= 25 mm 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.2 4.7 C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 20 19.4 11.4 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.9 10.7 64.5 D
>= 5 cm 15 14.1 7.2 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.77 5.8 43.3 D
>= 10 cm 9.8 7.2 4.1 0.08 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.46 2.8 24.5 D
>= 20 cm 1.9 1.6 0.81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.88 5.2 D
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 64 69 129 64 80 43 48 37 42 55 64 72
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1964/ 25 1964/ 23 1964/ 05 1964/ 21 1964/ 09 1964/ 10 1960/ 30 1968/ 14 1964/ 24 1965/ 31 1963/ 23 1963/ 24
Direction of Maximum Hourly Speed SW SW SW E SW W W W W W SW SW
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1964/ 25 1964/ 23 1964/ 05 1964/ 21 1964/ 09 1964/ 10 1960/ 30 1968/ 14 1964/ 24 1965/ 31 1963/ 23 1963/ 24
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 0 0 61 47 0 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1955/ 22 1955/ 09 1961/ 03
Direction of Maximum Gust CALM CALM SW W CALM CALM W CALM CALM CALM CALM CALM
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1955/ 22 1955/ 09 1961/ 03
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0.1 0.4 4.9 17.7 10.7 2 0 0 0 35.6 C
Above 18 °C 0 0 0.1 1.7 15.3 66.9 136.9 113.6 38.7 1.5 0 0 374.6 C
Above 15 °C 0 0 0.7 5.2 41.2 136.9 227.5 202.1 88.8 9.4 0.1 0 711.8 C
Above 10 °C 0 0 5.3 29.8 136.6 280.8 382.5 356.5 217.7 62.4 7.6 1.1 1480.2 C
Above 5 °C 2.4 3.5 24.9 106.9 283.4 430.8 537.5 511.5 366.1 180 50 9.4 2506.4 C
Above 0 °C 24.6 31.5 91.4 237.8 438.3 580.8 692.5 666.5 516.1 332.3 155.5 56.9 3824.1 C
Below 0 °C 140.5 104.1 47.9 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.2 71.5 373.7 C
Below 5 °C 273.3 217.2 136.5 21.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 2.8 51.7 179 882.1 C
Below 10 °C 426 354.9 271.8 94.4 8.3 0.1 0 0 1.6 40.1 159.3 325.7 1,682 C
Below 15 °C 580.9 495.9 422.2 219.8 67.8 6.1 0.1 0.6 22.7 142.1 301.8 479.6 2739.7 C
Below 18 °C 673.9 580.6 514.6 306.3 135 26.2 2.4 5.1 62.5 227.3 391.7 572.6 3498.2 C
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Total Hours 85.9 111.3 161.0 180.0 227.7 259.6 279.6 245.6 194.4 154.3 88.9 78.1 2066.3 D
Days with measureable 21.2 21.3 25.1 26.4 28.3 28.2 30.1 29.5 27.2 27.4 20.6 19.7 304.8 D
% of possible daylight hours 29.7 37.7 43.6 44.8 50.0 56.3 59.8 56.7 51.7 45.1 30.5 28.0 44.5 D
Extreme Daily 9.3 10.3 11.5 13.3 15.0 14.6 14.3 13.9 12.3 10.4 10.4 8.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 25 1972/ 20 1973/ 27 1975/ 22 1996/ 30 1999/ 26 1997/ 19 1963/ 05 1970/ 01 1986/ 20 1975/ 04 2000/ 20
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 15.7 12.2 21.7 31.6 39.8 44.5 43.0 42.6 43.8 31.2 26.1 17.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1967/ 25 1957/ 25 1963/ 30 1962/ 27 1969/ 29 1957/ 18 1964/ 28 1955/ 01 1953/ 02 1968/ 01 1961/ 03 1966/ 08
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -37 -34 -26 -17 -8 0 0 0 0 -8 -17 -34
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1963/ 24 1963/ 07 1968/ 03 1964/ 04 1963/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1965/ 29 1958/ 29 1962/ 30
Radiation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Radiation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2) 11.5 17 24.2 28.7 32.1 34.9 32.3 28.9 24.7 18.3 12.3 8.9
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1978/ 30 1980/ 29 1963/ 31 1978/ 30 1964/ 25 1995/ 15 1964/ 05 1959/ 01 1976/ 02 1974/ 03 1958/ 01 1990/ 02
Extreme Diffuse - RF2 (MJ/m2) 5.9 7.8 11.6 12.6 14.4 15.9 15.8 11.5 9.7 7.5 5.8 4.1
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1958/ 18 1958/ 18 1959/ 29 1957/ 28 1957/ 30 1958/ 15 1956/ 04 1957/ 14 1958/ 06 1957/ 11 1956/ 03 1956/ 13
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-FreeCode
Average Date of Last Spring Frost April 13 LegendCC
Average Date of First Fall Frost November 03 LegendCC
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 203 Days LegendCC
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateMay 15May 07May 04Apr 28Apr 21Apr 18Apr 10
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateOct 01Oct 09Oct 13Oct 19Oct 25Oct 29Nov 10
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days) 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
Days144158163172185191205
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years