Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
TORONTO BUTTONVILLE A
ONTARIO
Latitude: 43°51'44.000" N Longitude: 79°22'12.000" W Elevation: 198.10 m
Climate ID: 615HMAK WMO ID: 71639 TC ID: YKZ
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -5.8 -5.6 -0.4 6.7 13.0 18.6 21.2 20.2 15.7 8.9 3.1 -2.9 7.7 C
Standard Deviation 3.1 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.7 1.1 C
Daily Maximum (°C) -1.5 -0.9 4.5 12.1 19.1 24.6 27.1 26.0 21.5 14.1 7.2 0.9 12.9 C
Daily Minimum (°C) -10.1 -10.2 -5.3 1.2 6.8 12.6 15.2 14.3 9.9 3.6 -1.1 -6.8 2.5 C
Extreme Maximum (°C) 14.9 14.9 26.0 31.7 34.6 36.6 37.2 37.8 34.4 31.0 22.1 18.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 2000/ 27 1998/ 30 1990/ 26 2006/ 29 1995/ 19 1988/ 07 2001/ 08 2002/ 09 2007/ 08 1999/ 09 2001/ 06
Extreme Minimum (°C) -35.2 -25.7 -25.6 -10.6 -2.1 1.9 6.9 4.2 -2.0 -7.4 -15.0 -26.0
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1994/ 16 1987/ 15 2003/ 03 2003/ 06 1996/ 02 1986/ 03 1988/ 03 1986/ 29 1989/ 27 1988/ 31 1987/ 21 2004/ 20
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 26.0 22.9 33.6 66.7 79.5 82.8 78.8 76.2 81.8 66.7 68.3 34.2 717.4 C
Snowfall (cm) 39 30 19 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 34 143 C
Precipitation (mm) 62.1 50.5 53.2 74.1 79.6 82.8 79.0 76.2 81.8 68.0 80.0 65.7 852.9 C
Average Snow Depth (cm) 9 9 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 C
Median Snow Depth (cm) 8 9 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 12 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 40.4 36.3 38.0 45.1 64.6 41.6 42.8 71.2 80.3 43.0 43.7 30.6
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1995/ 15 1990/ 22 1991/ 27 2009/ 03 2000/ 12 2000/ 13 2009/ 23 1986/ 15 1986/ 10 1995/ 05 1993/ 27 2006/ 01
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 37 24 22 19 2 0 0 0 0 6 19 34
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 03 2001/ 08 1999/ 06 2009/ 06 2005/ 02 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1997/ 27 1987/ 25 2000/ 12
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 40.4 36.3 38.0 45.1 64.6 41.6 42.8 71.2 80.3 43.0 43.7 42.6
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1995/ 15 1990/ 22 1991/ 27 2009/ 03 2000/ 12 2000/ 13 2009/ 23 1986/ 15 1986/ 10 1995/ 05 1993/ 27 1990/ 03
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 57 45 44 16 0 0 0 0 0 1 70 43
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1999/ 16 2001/ 09 2008/ 09 1994/ 07 1986/ 23 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 2008/ 29 1986/ 23 1992/ 12
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 17.8 15.3 7.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 12.8 55.9 C
> 0 °C 13.2 13.0 23.7 29.4 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 31.0 28.0 18.2 309.4 C
> 10 °C 0.8 0.5 6.3 18.7 29.9 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.9 24.0 8.2 1.2 211.4 C
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.7 3.0 12.3 24.6 30.3 29.5 18.7 4.1 0.2 0.0 123.3 C
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 4.0 7.0 4.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.0 C
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 2.4 1.0 5.1 17.5 29.5 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.6 24.0 12.2 3.3 216.7 C
<= 2 °C 30.3 28.2 28.5 18.2 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 11.9 22.9 30.0 175.5 C
<= 0 °C 28.6 27.2 25.9 12.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 7.0 17.8 27.7 148.5 C
< -2 °C 26.0 25.3 21.2 6.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 11.8 23.0 116.3 C
< -10 °C 14.8 14.2 6.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 8.5 45.0 C
< -20 °C 3.4 1.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 6.1 C
< - 30 °C 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 5.8 3.8 6.7 10.8 12 11.8 11.2 9.9 10.8 13 11.3 6.6 113.7 C
>= 5 mm 1.8 1.5 2.3 4.8 4.9 5.3 5 4.4 4.7 4.4 3.8 2.5 45.4 C
>= 10 mm 0.71 0.79 1.1 1.9 2.7 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.8 2 2.4 1.1 24 C
>= 25 mm 0.08 0.17 0.09 0.29 0.63 0.48 0.68 0.52 0.64 0.24 0.32 0.12 4.3 C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 13.4 10.8 7 2.9 0.13 0 0 0 0 0.48 4.7 10.8 50.2 C
>= 5 cm 2.5 2 0.96 0.42 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.68 1.8 8.3 C
>= 10 cm 0.79 0.50 0.43 0.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.24 0.64 2.8 C
>= 25 cm 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.12 0.16 C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 16.7 12.9 12.0 12.3 12.0 11.8 11.2 9.9 10.8 13.2 14.5 15.3 152.7 C
>= 5 mm 4.3 3.3 3.4 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.0 53.5 C
>= 10 mm 1.5 1.2 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.1 2.7 1.9 27.2 C
>= 25 mm 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 4.6 C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 21.3 22.7 11 1 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 2.8 15.8 74.6 C
>= 5 cm 16.2 17.7 6.8 0.43 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.1 8.4 50.6 C
>= 10 cm 11 11.3 3.9 0.17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.58 4.7 31.6 C
>= 20 cm 4.6 3.9 1.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 1.8 11.4 C
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 14.0 13.9 13.8 13.9 12.3 11.4 10.7 10.0 10.6 11.6 12.9 13.4 12.4 C
Most Frequent Direction SW W NW NW NW NW NW N N W W W NW C
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 65 65 67 56 57 50 65 56 52 56 80 54
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1989/ 08 1987/ 08 1991/ 28 1995/ 04 2010/ 08 1988/ 05 1999/ 24 1992/ 10 1989/ 23 1996/ 30 1991/ 30 1991/ 15
Direction of Maximum Hourly Speed W NW SW NW NW NW NW NW NW SW SW W
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1989/ 08 1987/ 08 1991/ 28 1995/ 04 2010/ 08 1988/ 05 1999/ 24 1992/ 10 1989/ 23 1996/ 30 1991/ 30 1991/ 15
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 111 100 111 89 87 111 135 102 83 104 111 93
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1992/ 14 1997/ 27 2002/ 09 2001/ 12 1990/ 17 1986/ 16 1995/ 15 1987/ 16 2000/ 20 1999/ 13 1991/ 30 1991/ 14
Direction of Maximum Gust N SW S S SW W NW W NW NW SW W
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1992/ 14 1997/ 27 2002/ 09 2001/ 12 1990/ 17 1986/ 16 1995/ 15 1987/ 16 2000/ 20 1999/ 13 1991/ 30 1991/ 14
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.9 0.6 6.7 C
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.1 1.9 C
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0.3 4.1 11.9 6.4 0.8 0 0 0 23.5 C
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 1.3 13.2 56.2 104.4 82.5 21.8 1.1 0 0 280.5 C
Above 15 °C 0 0 0.3 4.4 33.6 119.3 191.7 161.9 60.5 5.8 0 0 577.5 C
Above 10 °C 0.1 0 2.7 22.8 112 259 346.2 315.6 175.3 38.6 3.5 0.2 1275.9 C
Above 5 °C 2 0.6 17.6 86.9 248.3 408.8 501.2 470.6 320.9 130.8 30 3.4 2220.9 C
Above 0 °C 17 11.2 68.3 209.2 402.7 558.8 656.2 625.6 470.9 275.5 111.9 27.9 3435.2 C
Below 0 °C 196.6 168.4 76.6 4.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 19.4 118.6 584.2 C
Below 5 °C 336.5 299 180.9 32.2 0.5 0 0 0 0 10.4 87.5 249 1196.2 C
Below 10 °C 489.6 439.7 321 118.2 19.3 0.2 0 0 4.4 73.2 211 400.8 2077.5 C
Below 15 °C 644.5 581 473.6 249.8 95.8 10.6 0.4 1.3 39.6 195.5 357.6 555.6 3205.3 C
Below 18 °C 737.5 665.7 566.3 336.7 168.5 37.4 6.2 15 90.9 283.7 447.5 648.6 4,004 C
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 16.0 14.4 29.2 35.7 41.0 44.6 50.9 47.4 43.6 37.8 24.9 20.6
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 2000/ 27 1998/ 30 1990/ 25 2006/ 29 1994/ 15 1995/ 14 2006/ 01 1991/ 16 2007/ 08 1990/ 03 1998/ 07
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 3.5 10.1 17.1 14.5 5.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 51.6 C
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 4.3 7.6 5.8 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 19.8 C
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.2 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 C
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -43 -37 -36 -19 -4 0 0 0 -4 -9 -24 -37
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1994/ 16 1995/ 05 2003/ 03 1995/ 05 2004/ 04 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1986/ 01 1989/ 27 1988/ 31 1987/ 21 1989/ 22
Days with Wind Chill < -20 9.3 7.9 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.0 23.7 C
Days with Wind Chill < -30 1.8 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.8 C
Days with Wind Chill < -40 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 C
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 1 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.4 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.9 C
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 79.6 77.6 77.2 76.1 77.9 79.3 82.5 87.4 89.6 87.6 85.1 82.1 81.8 C
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 69.6 64 57.8 52.9 52.3 53.9 53.4 55.9 59.2 62.4 68.9 71.1 60.1 C
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 99.2 99.3 99.3 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.2 C
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.5 101.5 101.4 101.4 101.6 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.6 C
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 16.2 12 11.1 6.2 7.2 5.8 2.4 1.8 5.4 7.4 12.4 13.6 101.5 D
1 to 9 km 150.6 116.7 96.7 80.6 61.7 71.3 72.3 77.4 79.4 80.4 103.8 126.9 1117.7 D
> 9 km 577.2 550.2 636.2 633.2 675.1 642.9 669.4 664.9 635.3 656.2 603.7 603.5 7547.6 D
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 132.4 152.6 216 186.2 209.8 192.6 199.7 240.7 236.5 176.9 117.1 120.2 2180.6 D
3 to 7 tenths 101.6 109.8 128.2 129.5 162.3 197.6 231.5 213.8 167 150.8 124.4 101.3 1817.7 D
8 to 10 tenths 510 416.5 399.8 404.3 371.9 329.8 312.9 289.6 316.5 416.3 478.5 522.5 4768.5 D
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-FreeCode
Average Date of Last Spring Frost May 05 LegendCC
Average Date of First Fall Frost October 10 LegendCC
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 157 Days LegendCC
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateMay 18May 11May 09May 05May 02Apr 29Apr 25
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateSep 25Oct 01Oct 03Oct 10Oct 15Oct 21Oct 27
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days) 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
Days139146148157160166181
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years