Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

Metadata including Station Name, Province, Latitude, Longitude, Elevation, Climate ID, WMO ID, TC ID
OTTAWA MACDONALD-CARTIER INT'L A *
ONTARIO
Latitude: 45°19'21.000" N Longitude: 75°40'09.000" W Elevation: 114.00 m
Climate ID: 6106000 WMO ID: 71628 TC ID: YOW

* This station meets WMO standards for temperature and precipitation.

Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Daily Average (°C) -10.3 -8.1 -2.3 6.3 13.3 18.5 21.0 19.8 15.0 8.0 1.5 -6.2 6.4 A
Standard Deviation 3.4 2.5 2.3 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.7 3.0 0.8 A
Daily Maximum (°C) -5.8 -3.4 2.5 11.6 19.0 24.1 26.5 25.3 20.4 12.7 5.4 -2.3 11.3 A
Daily Minimum (°C) -14.8 -12.8 -7.0 1.0 7.5 12.9 15.5 14.3 9.6 3.3 -2.4 -10.1 1.4 A
Extreme Maximum (°C) 12.9 12.4 26.7 31.1 35.8 36.1 36.7 37.8 35.1 27.8 23.9 16.3
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 2000/ 27 1946/ 29 1990/ 27 2010/ 26 1941/ 27 1955/ 21 1944/ 11 2002/ 09 1946/ 07 1938/ 06 1982/ 03
Extreme Minimum (°C) -35.6 -36.1 -30.6 -16.7 -5.6 -0.1 5.0 2.6 -3.0 -7.8 -21.7 -34.4
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1957/ 15 1943/ 15 1950/ 03 1954/ 04 1966/ 07 1980/ 09 1946/ 15 1986/ 29 1980/ 29 1939/ 18 1940/ 29 1942/ 20
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Rainfall (mm) 25.0 18.7 31.1 63.0 80.1 92.8 91.9 85.5 90.1 82.2 64.5 33.5 758.2 A
Snowfall (cm) 54 43 38 11 0 0 0 0 0 4 20 53 223 A
Precipitation (mm) 65.4 54.3 64.4 74.5 80.3 92.8 91.9 85.5 90.1 86.1 81.9 76.4 943.4 A
Average Snow Depth (cm) 24 28 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 13 7 A
Median Snow Depth (cm) 24 27 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 13 7 A
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm) 27 25 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 19 7 A
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm) 43.6 40.4 44.2 46.2 47.8 66.6 69.6 67.0 135.4 76.0 46.2 36.3
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2010/ 25 1997/ 21 1980/ 21 2005/ 02 2008/ 31 1995/ 03 1967/ 09 2004/ 10 2004/ 09 1995/ 06 2000/ 26 1941/ 24
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm) 39 40 41 30 15 0 0 0 2 29 28 36
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1966/ 30 1954/ 16 1947/ 02 1993/ 01 1963/ 10 1939/ 01 1939/ 01 1939/ 01 1946/ 30 1988/ 22 1987/ 25 2007/ 16
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm) 43.6 40.4 44.2 46.2 47.8 66.6 69.6 67.0 135.4 76.0 46.2 43.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2010/ 25 1997/ 21 1980/ 21 2005/ 02 2008/ 31 1995/ 03 1967/ 09 2004/ 10 2004/ 09 1995/ 06 2000/ 26 1973/ 09
Extreme Snow Depth (cm) 77 119 135 58 10 0 0 0 0 20 42 75
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1979/ 26 1971/ 24 1993/ 14 1971/ 01 1963/ 11 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1955/ 01 1997/ 27 1995/ 29 2007/ 17
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
<= 0 °C 23.7 19.5 10.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 18.6 77.5 A
> 0 °C 7.3 8.7 21.0 29.3 31.0 30.0 31.0 31.0 30.0 31.0 25.0 12.4 287.7 A
> 10 °C 0.2 0.1 3.5 17.0 29.9 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.6 20.6 6.0 0.6 199.5 A
> 20 °C 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.3 12.7 24.2 29.6 28.2 15.2 3.1 0.0 0.0 116.4 A
> 30 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.9 4.8 3.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.0 A
> 35 °C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 A
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
> 0 °C 0.9 1.1 4.5 17.4 30.3 30.0 31.0 31.0 29.7 23.7 9.4 1.4 210.4 A
<= 2 °C 30.8 27.9 29.6 18.4 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 12.8 25.5 30.7 179.1 A
<= 0 °C 30.1 27.1 26.5 12.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 7.3 20.6 29.6 154.9 A
< -2 °C 29.1 25.9 22.6 6.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 14.5 26.8 128.5 A
< -10 °C 22.7 19.0 9.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 14.7 67.9 A
< -20 °C 8.6 4.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 16.3 A
< - 30 °C 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 A
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 4.4 3.9 6.7 10.9 13.4 13.2 11.9 11 12.3 13.7 11 6 118.4 A
>= 5 mm 1.6 1.2 2.1 4 4.9 5.8 5.4 4.8 5.1 5 4.2 2.3 46.5 A
>= 10 mm 0.87 0.57 1 2 2.7 2.9 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.7 2.1 1.2 25.2 A
>= 25 mm 0.13 0.07 0.10 0.33 0.47 0.73 0.77 0.67 0.60 0.47 0.43 0.13 4.9 A
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 cm 16.1 12.1 8.8 3.5 0.17 0 0 0 0 1.1 6.8 14.7 63.3 A
>= 5 cm 3.9 2.9 2.6 0.60 0 0 0 0 0 0.20 1.2 3.7 15.1 A
>= 10 cm 1 0.93 1.2 0.27 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.47 1.3 5.3 A
>= 25 cm 0.03 0.10 0.10 0.03 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.39 A
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 0.2 mm 16.6 13.1 12.7 12.4 13.4 13.2 11.9 11.0 12.3 14.3 15.2 17.4 163.6 A
>= 5 mm 4.4 3.5 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.8 5.4 4.8 5.1 5.1 5.4 4.9 58.4 A
>= 10 mm 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.7 2.9 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.2 30.0 A
>= 25 mm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 5.5 A
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
>= 1 cm 30.4 27.8 23.7 4.3 0 0 0 0 0 0.53 6 24.5 117.3 A
>= 5 cm 29 27.3 19.6 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0.30 3.3 19.7 101.1 A
>= 10 cm 25.4 25.6 15.6 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.07 1.6 15 84.4 A
>= 20 cm 16 15.3 11.8 0.40 0 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.50 7.8 51.8 A
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Speed (km/h) 14.6 14.3 14.4 15.0 13.1 11.4 10.7 10.2 11.1 12.7 13.8 14.2 12.9 A
Most Frequent Direction W W W E W W W SW S W W W W A
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h) 72 72 72 67 64 67 54 69 64 80 66 61
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1962/ 07 1965/ 25 1956/ 11 1985/ 07 1964/ 09 1985/ 23 1986/ 29 1961/ 11 1955/ 10 1954/ 15 1963/ 30 1982/ 28
Direction of Maximum Hourly Speed E E SW SW SW W NW SW SW E NW SW
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1962/ 07 1965/ 25 1956/ 11 1985/ 07 1964/ 09 1985/ 23 1986/ 29 1961/ 11 1955/ 10 1954/ 15 1963/ 30 1982/ 28
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h) 100 122 116 93 135 106 129 100 85 100 103 94
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1996/ 27 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 1975/ 19 1959/ 11 1957/ 23 1962/ 09 1957/ 03 1955/ 10 1955/ 14 1956/ 16 1982/ 28
Direction of Maximum Gust SW W SW SW SW W SW SW SW E SW SW
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1996/ 27 1956/ 25 1964/ 05 1975/ 19 1959/ 11 1957/ 23 1962/ 09 1957/ 03 1955/ 10 1955/ 14 1956/ 16 1982/ 28
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.5 1.1 1.2 7.9 A
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.5 A
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Above 24 °C 0 0 0 0 0.3 4.1 7.8 4.3 0.8 0 0 0 17.2 A
Above 18 °C 0 0 0 1 11.2 53.5 100.3 75.3 17.6 0.6 0 0 259.7 A
Above 15 °C 0 0 0 4 33 116.3 187.2 152 50.2 4 0 0 546.7 A
Above 10 °C 0 0 0.9 21.9 118.2 255.7 341.9 304.2 156.6 29.3 1.9 0 1230.6 A
Above 5 °C 0.5 0.3 9.4 80.5 257.9 405.5 496.9 459.2 300.8 109.7 19.8 1.3 2141.8 A
Above 0 °C 5.6 7.3 47.2 195.9 412.2 555.5 651.9 614.2 450.6 248.6 83.8 12.5 3285.2 A
Below 0 °C 325.6 236.2 114.4 7.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 39.6 204.6 928 A
Below 5 °C 475.5 370.4 231.5 41.9 0.6 0 0 0 0.2 16.6 125.6 348.4 1610.8 A
Below 10 °C 630.1 511.2 378 133.2 16 0.2 0 0 6 91.2 257.7 502.1 2525.7 A
Below 15 °C 785.1 652.4 532.1 265.3 85.8 10.8 0.4 2.8 49.7 220.9 405.8 657.1 3,668 A
Below 18 °C 878.1 737.1 625.1 352.4 157 38 6.5 19.1 107 310.5 495.8 750.1 4476.7 A
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Daily 9.3 10.4 11.8 13.6 14.8 15.3 15.4 14.1 12.5 10.9 9.8 8.7
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1981/ 31 1980/ 28 1980/ 30 1980/ 21 1980/ 28 1978/ 30 1979/ 03 1978/ 05 1983/ 01 1982/ 04 1978/ 01 1980/ 04
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Humidex 13.9 12.7 27.2 35.1 41.8 44.0 46.0 47.0 42.5 33.9 26.1 18.4
Date
(yyyy/dd)
2005/ 13 1981/ 22 1998/ 30 2002/ 17 2010/ 26 1995/ 19 1955/ 01 2006/ 01 1953/ 04 2005/ 04 1961/ 03 1982/ 03
Days with Humidex >= 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.0 8.4 15.9 12.9 4.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 43.8 A
Days with Humidex >= 35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 3.2 5.6 4.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.0 A
Days with Humidex >= 40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.4 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 A
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Extreme Wind Chill -48 -48 -43 -26 -11 0 0 0 -6 -13 -30 -45
Date
(yyyy/dd)
1968/ 08 1967/ 12 2007/ 06 1982/ 07 1966/ 07 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1953/ 01 1980/ 29 1966/ 30 1958/ 30 1980/ 25
Days with Wind Chill < -20 17.4 13.8 5.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 9.8 47.4 A
Days with Wind Chill < -30 6.8 2.9 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 12.1 A
Days with Wind Chill < -40 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 A
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa) 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.3 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.9 A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%) 76.5 74.9 73.7 73.5 76.1 81.1 84.4 87.9 89.6 86.1 83.5 81.8 80.8 A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%) 67.5 61.3 56.6 50.2 49.9 53.1 53.7 55 59.1 61.6 68.1 72.2 59 A
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa) 100.2 100.3 100.2 100 100.1 99.9 100 100.2 100.3 100.3 100.3 100.3 100.2 A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa) 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.4 101.4 101.3 101.4 101.6 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.7 101.6 A
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
< 1 km 12.8 15.4 14.6 5.2 3.3 3.6 3.1 4.8 8.2 12 14.5 16.7 114.1 C
1 to 9 km 141.8 108.6 101.2 71.2 56.8 64.7 63.2 76.8 78.1 77.1 109 144.4 1092.7 C
> 9 km 589.4 553.6 628.2 643.7 683.9 651.7 677.8 662.5 633.6 654.9 596.5 582.9 7558.8 C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Code
0 to 2 tenths 189 199.2 235.4 179.7 185 178.1 201.5 211.6 223.4 193.9 138.3 156.9 2291.9 C
3 to 7 tenths 96.8 102.7 119 128 167 195.1 228.1 214.1 168.2 139.1 108.2 99.2 1765.6 C
8 to 10 tenths 458.3 375.7 389.6 412.3 392 346.8 314.5 318.3 328.4 411 473.5 488 4708.1 C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-FreeCode
Average Date of Last Spring Frost April 30 LegendAA
Average Date of First Fall Frost October 07 LegendAA
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 159 Days LegendAA
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateMay 20May 13May 11May 07Apr 29Apr 27Apr 19
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
DateSep 24Sep 28Sep 29Oct 02Oct 06Oct 09Oct 15
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days) 10% 25% 33% 50% 66% 75% 90%
Days130140144152158161167
Legend
  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years