Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-10.0-8.0-2.56.012.617.920.519.014.28.01.3-5.86.1D
Standard Deviation3.72.92.21.71.41.41.11.21.11.51.43.40.7D
Daily Maximum (°C)-5.2-3.02.611.218.423.726.524.919.813.05.3-1.711.3D
Daily Minimum (°C)-14.8-12.9-7.50.86.811.914.513.18.63.0-2.6-9.90.9D
Extreme Maximum (°C)15.514.526.730.033.938.336.738.336.128.323.316.7
Date (yyyy/dd)1996/ 181981/ 221946/ 281990/ 271962/ 181941/ 271931/ 011944/ 151931/ 111946/ 061961/ 031951/ 07
Extreme Minimum (°C)-38.3-39.4-32.0-15.6-6.7-0.63.0-0.6-6.5-12.2-23.9-35.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1976/ 241971/ 031980/ 021954/ 031943/ 011964/ 051978/ 021976/ 311984/ 301933/ 261940/ 291933/ 29
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)23.522.625.470.584.479.993.987.592.378.567.430.9756.7D
Snowfall (cm)40.740.634.012.20.40.00.00.00.04.421.545.1199.0D
Precipitation (mm)64.362.359.182.684.879.993.987.592.382.988.976.0954.3D
Average Snow Depth (cm)0000000000000
Median Snow Depth (cm)0000000000000
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)43.537.346.550.248.066.065.864.374.062.648.134.7
Date (yyyy/dd)1978/ 081961/ 251977/ 131991/ 211972/ 181953/ 251951/ 041933/ 241981/ 081995/ 051994/ 011983/ 12
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)40.643.763.519.39.70.00.00.05.131.630.041.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 301972/ 031947/ 021975/ 031963/ 101929/ 011929/ 011929/ 011946/ 301988/ 221987/ 251977/ 28
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)43.548.863.550.248.066.065.864.374.062.648.141.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1978/ 081976/ 211947/ 021991/ 211972/ 181953/ 251951/ 041933/ 241981/ 081995/ 051994/ 011977/ 28
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)478935300000002048
Date (yyyy/dd)1978/ 251971/ 241978/ 031972/ 011971/ 011971/ 011971/ 011971/ 011971/ 011971/ 011983/ 041972/ 17
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C22.219.210.40.760000005.616.975.1D
> 0 °C8.89.120.629.231303131303124.414.1290.2D
> 10 °C0.410.353.715.429.430313129.4215.30.69197.5D
> 20 °C000.123.111.223.529.627.114.22.60.060111.4D
> 30 °C00000.1223.92.40.180008.5D
> 35 °C00000000.1200000.12D
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C1.11.73.815.628.729.9313128.320.88.52.1202.3D
<= 2 °C30.927.429.919.15.90.1200.063.414.72530.4186.9D
<= 0 °C29.926.627.214.42.40.12001.710.221.528.9163D
< -2 °C27.924.722.27.40.290000.244.814.725.1127.3D
< -10 °C2117.910.40.410000002.413.565.5D
< -20 °C8.55.71.800000000.063.919.9D
< - 30 °C1.10.180000000000.311.6D
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm3.83.25.811.614.512.212.112.51313.311.84.9118.6D
>= 5 mm1.41.51.74.55.655.55.265.14.12.147.6D
>= 10 mm0.590.760.592.43.12.83.73.43.12.21.80.9425.3D
>= 25 mm0.240.180.060.410.410.410.820.650.530.530.500.134.9D
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm13.810.27.13.10.1200000.765.111.651.7D
>= 5 cm2.42.42.110.0600000.291.33.613D
>= 10 cm0.881.40.940.18000000.180.561.15.3D
>= 25 cm0.060.060.060000000.060.130.060.43D
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm16.412.611.513.414.512.212.112.51313.715.414.8162D
>= 5 mm3.93.93.75.75.755.55.265.35.15.860.6D
>= 10 mm1.72.31.52.83.12.83.73.43.12.42.62.231.5D
>= 25 mm0.290.240.240.470.410.410.820.650.530.590.630.255.5D
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm0000000000000
>= 5 cm0000000000000
>= 10 cm0000000000000
>= 20 cm0000000000000
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)484045534740343235394842
Date (yyyy/dd)1972/ 251972/ 201984/ 111975/ 191974/ 011972/ 151980/ 061977/ 291980/ 111988/ 181992/ 131971/ 11
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedSWNWSWSWNWSWNWSESWSWSWSW
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C00000.12.35.63.40.200011.7D
Above 18 °C00018.442.290.562.514.20.500219.2D
Above 15 °C0004.32799172.7131.8434.20.10482D
Above 10 °C000.721.4102.1235.9326.1280.5137.632.13.40.11139.9D
Above 5 °C0.81.79.476237.1385.5481.1435.3277.5111.221.71.62038.9D
Above 0 °C712.746.3188.3391.3535.5636.1590.3427.1248.582.917.13,183D
Below 0 °C316.9237.8122.47.5000000.542.7197924.7D
Below 5 °C465.6368.1240.545.20.80000.418.2131.6336.51606.8D
Below 10 °C619.8507.5386.8140.620.80.500.210.594.1263.34902,534D
Below 15 °C774.8648.7541.1273.5100.713.61.66.465.9221.2409.9644.93702.3D
Below 18 °C867.8733.4634.1360.2175.146.812.530.1127.1310.5499.8737.94535.2D
Soil Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Soil Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
at 5 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-5.30.0-6.5-1.37.113.015.60.00.00.00.00.00.0
at 10 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-1.90.0-3.50.69.415.518.40.00.00.00.00.00.0
Evaporation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Lake Evaporation (mm)00002.83.53.93.221.6000
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Daily9.410.511.713.515.015.115.014.212.510.69.78.7
Date (yyyy/dd)1981/ 311987/ 241974/ 291978/ 261971/ 231971/ 221978/ 011971/ 061972/ 011977/ 231977/ 011979/ 03
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost May 14 D
Average Date of First Fall Frost Sept 26 D
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 134 Days D
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateMay 28May 22May 20May 16May 12May 09May 01
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateSep 13Sep 17Sep 19Sep 24Sep 27Oct 01Oct 08
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days110121125132137142154

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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