Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-19.3-15.9-8.20.78.515.217.716.810.62.5-6.6-15.50.5C
Standard Deviation3.63.63.02.82.71.91.41.51.92.03.23.61.2C
Daily Maximum (°C)-14.3-9.9-2.06.814.420.923.022.015.26.1-3.1-11.15.7C
Daily Minimum (°C)-24.1-21.8-14.4-5.32.59.412.311.45.9-1.1-10.1-19.8-4.6C
Extreme Maximum (°C)4.79.618.228.233.438.835.833.929.625.413.86.3
Date (yyyy/dd)1999/ 302000/ 232010/ 302001/ 292010/ 251995/ 182007/ 242001/ 042008/ 012005/ 022008/ 041998/ 14
Extreme Minimum (°C)-41.6-41.3-36.3-24.1-9.4-1.33.11.8-6.5-14.2-30.5-42.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1996/ 311996/ 012003/ 021995/ 042008/ 012000/ 061992/ 262004/ 231991/ 291997/ 262007/ 302004/ 26
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.30.85.614.959.3100.3106.788.395.539.99.80.7522.0C
Snowfall (cm)36.825.331.424.913.20.20.00.03.530.049.941.9257.0C
Precipitation (mm)26.818.930.837.071.3100.5106.788.398.767.550.731.5728.5C
Average Snow Depth (cm)3138341100000182012C
Median Snow Depth (cm)323833800000072012C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)3537242000003132512C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)2.43.816.629.844.867.078.041.846.628.229.04.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 181994/ 192000/ 251992/ 191991/ 222005/ 232002/ 271992/ 232003/ 172009/ 301990/ 212003/ 27
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)14.217.422.843.625.03.00.00.026.628.232.622.4
Date (yyyy/dd)2010/ 242005/ 142002/ 092008/ 262009/ 152009/ 051990/ 011990/ 012007/ 132001/ 251991/ 012001/ 05
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)12.814.619.036.844.867.078.041.846.636.233.219.8
Date (yyyy/dd)2010/ 242005/ 142002/ 092008/ 261991/ 222005/ 232002/ 271992/ 232003/ 172009/ 301997/ 012001/ 05
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)59606956300108173442
Date (yyyy/dd)1997/ 222009/ 262004/ 201992/ 252009/ 161990/ 012000/ 091990/ 011995/ 211993/ 291991/ 032004/ 31
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C30.225.718.44.60.4300004.420.629.6133.8D
> 0 °C0.842.612.725.430.63031313026.69.41.4231.4D
> 10 °C001.69.821.52930.930.823.87.20.570155.2D
> 20 °C0000.957.917.12319.16.30.350074.6D
> 30 °C00000.191.41.61.600004.8D
> 35 °C000000.190.14000000.33D
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C001.24.919.729.731312711.31.60.05157.3D
<= 2 °C3128.230.727.715.51.400.056.324.129.631225.5D
<= 0 °C3128.229.925.111.30.29003.119.728.431207.9D
< -2 °C30.927.728.420.65.90000.7612.226.230.8183.3D
< -10 °C29.425.420.25.8000000.5513.625.5120.5D
< -20 °C21.818.28.70.760000003.315.868.5D
< - 30 °C8.240.9500000000.104.117.3D
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm0.350.621.84.212.116.117.715.615.810.230.6798C
>= 5 mm000.3313.95.76.65.362.50.62031.9C
>= 10 mm000.100.381.92.93.433.410.14016.2C
>= 25 mm0000.100.240.710.670.620.670.100.0503.2C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm15.411.311.36.43.30.24001.18.815.41689.3C
>= 5 cm2.21.521.70.710000.141.82.72.915.6C
>= 10 cm0.500.190.570.480.430000.100.811.10.624.8C
>= 25 cm0000.100.050000.050.050.1900.44C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm14.510.411.68.613.716.117.715.616.316.11615171.5C
>= 5 mm1.51.11.92.54.55.76.65.36.14.431.444C
>= 10 mm0.200.100.620.862.52.93.433.61.81.10.2420.2C
>= 25 mm0000.240.290.710.670.620.710.190.2403.7C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm3128.230.117.51.900.0500.295.222.831168C
>= 5 cm30.328.127.511.80.950000.05217.930.2148.6C
>= 10 cm30.228.126.79.80.5700000.5212.324.9132.9C
>= 20 cm26.926.924.56.90.1400000218.1105.4C
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)485050484346445248564861
Date (yyyy/dd)2001/ 052002/ 112010/ 241994/ 161997/ 081997/ 271997/ 271995/ 202007/ 112001/ 251994/ 211999/ 25
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedCALMNWWNWNSWNWWNWNNWNW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)6570877874111899393938087
Date (yyyy/dd)1996/ 182002/ 112010/ 242001/ 261998/ 161996/ 272006/ 081995/ 202000/ 102001/ 252001/ 251999/ 25
Direction of Maximum GustSNWWWWSWWWSWNNNW
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h0.00.00.10.10.10.30.10.10.10.30.20.11.3D
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h0.00.00.00.00.00.10.00.00.00.10.00.10.2D
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C000001.72.71.30.10005.8D
Above 18 °C00002.525.740.733.94.2000107.1D
Above 15 °C0000.212.162.599.180.115.10.400269.4D
Above 10 °C000.14.155.2166.2238.5210.5684.700747.1D
Above 5 °C001.625.3138.3305.7392.8364.1174.828.71.401432.6D
Above 0 °C01.214.886.3266.8455.2547.8519.1317.3102.914.20.22,326D
Below 0 °C600.6449.5270.760.93.30000.125213.3479.92103.4D
Below 5 °C755.6589.5412.5149.829.80.5007.5105.8350.5634.83036.1D
Below 10 °C910.6730.6566278.6101.7110.71.350.7236.8499.1789.84176.9D
Below 15 °C1065.6871.8720.9424.7213.657.316.326147.8387.5649.1944.85525.4D
Below 18 °C1158.6956.6813.9514.6297.1110.550.972.8227480.1739.11037.86458.8D
Evaporation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Lake Evaporation (mm)00003.94.543.72.20000
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex4.28.117.928.138.042.447.738.937.229.613.35.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1999/ 302000/ 232010/ 301990/ 242010/ 251995/ 172001/ 202001/ 052008/ 012005/ 022008/ 041998/ 14
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-53-52-48-35-15-700-9-23-39-51
Date (yyyy/dd)1994/ 181996/ 022003/ 021995/ 032005/ 021990/ 031990/ 011990/ 011991/ 291996/ 302007/ 301993/ 25
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)75.174.675.976.180.884.987.889.191.389.987.580.482.8C
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)69.660.352.845.549.151.65555.963.270.877.976.160.7C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost May 24 D
Average Date of First Fall Frost Sept 26 D
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 124 Days D
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJun 10May 30May 28May 25May 17May 14May 10
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateSep 17Sep 21Sep 23Sep 25Sep 29Oct 01Oct 12
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days96116121123128136146

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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