Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-14.8-11.9-5.43.810.816.219.218.212.34.9-4.8-12.23.0A
Standard Deviation4.54.13.12.61.82.01.31.91.41.63.64.61.1A
Daily Maximum (°C)-9.3-6.3-0.19.917.322.025.024.218.110.2-0.2-7.28.6A
Daily Minimum (°C)-20.3-17.3-10.6-2.34.310.313.312.16.4-0.4-9.3-17.2-2.6A
Extreme Maximum (°C)14.516.024.034.536.038.036.738.537.532.524.414.5
Date (yyyy/dd)2003/ 071992/ 291993/ 241980/ 211980/ 211979/ 131975/ 281988/ 061983/ 021992/ 011975/ 051988/ 01
Extreme Minimum (°C)-40.6-41.0-35.4-27.0-10.5-1.10.61.0-6.5-19.5-35.0-39.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1972/ 151996/ 022003/ 021982/ 041983/ 151973/ 071972/ 031982/ 271983/ 291988/ 291985/ 291989/ 20
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.00.87.916.662.187.674.261.957.934.76.40.9411.0C
Snowfall (cm)26.119.528.112.30.60.00.00.00.38.422.627.3145.1C
Precipitation (mm)21.518.133.729.862.787.674.261.958.242.725.922.7538.9C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)1615920000029146D
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)0.811.217.638.153.083.877.070.6147.363.035.011.9
Date (yyyy/dd)1986/ 192000/ 261990/ 121976/ 161986/ 051971/ 051991/ 111975/ 241975/ 181984/ 152000/ 011982/ 01
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)18.816.726.434.56.60.00.00.08.031.430.523.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 101986/ 161975/ 271984/ 271991/ 031971/ 011971/ 011971/ 011992/ 271996/ 201975/ 281973/ 16
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)21.516.031.838.153.083.877.070.6147.363.036.318.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1980/ 101996/ 092007/ 281976/ 161986/ 051971/ 051991/ 111975/ 241975/ 181984/ 151984/ 251979/ 09
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)52655537260000225151
Date (yyyy/dd)1985/ 271985/ 091987/ 021983/ 011984/ 011981/ 011981/ 011981/ 011981/ 011980/ 171984/ 281984/ 01
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C2521.415.53.30.1500002.115.724.7107.9C
> 0 °C66.815.526.730.93031313028.914.36.3257.4C
> 10 °C0.280.603.214.625.929.7313127.215.12.60.23181.2C
> 20 °C000.043.310.819.327.424.211.22.60.08098.9C
> 30 °C00000.731.53.53.50.420.04009.7C
> 35 °C000000.150.080.260.040000.53C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C0.270.3321023.529.8313127.913.41.40.24170.8C
<= 2 °C30.92830.523.711.20.6700.084.921.529.430.9211.6C
<= 0 °C30.727.829207.50.19002.217.628.530.7194.1C
< -2 °C30.42725.8143.10000.6510.52530166.3C
< -10 °C262114.92.70.0400000.8811.52299.1C
< -20 °C16.311.54.40.24000000311.747.1C
< - 30 °C4.92.40.2600000000.123.210.8C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm0.070.372.45.711.414.512.911.911.27.51.70.5480.1A
>= 5 mm00.070.561.13.65.23.93.22.81.90.310.0422.6A
>= 10 mm00.040.160.37232.31.81.60.960.150.0412.4A
>= 25 mm00000.420.590.560.590.410.300.0402.9A
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm10.27.97.22.50.410000.0727.29.646.9C
>= 5 cm1.40.891.60.780.040000.040.481.41.58.2C
>= 10 cm0.310.260.850.33000000.220.460.332.8C
>= 25 cm0000.07000000.040.0400.15C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm10.38.59.17.811.514.512.911.911.39.38.510125.6C
>= 5 mm0.8811.923.65.23.93.22.92.21.51.329.6C
>= 10 mm0.150.1910.74232.31.81.71.30.580.1314.8C
>= 25 mm000.110.070.420.590.560.590.410.330.0803.2C
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)12.412.312.814.013.211.210.511.012.313.513.012.312.4A
Most Frequent DirectionNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWNWA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)746772664860595055686361
Date (yyyy/dd)1993/ 292004/ 122004/ 191997/ 281984/ 171985/ 082000/ 241995/ 141983/ 031991/ 171999/ 011999/ 27
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedWSWWNWSWSWEWSWSWNW
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C00000.31.73.32.70.20008.2C
Above 18 °C0000.37.727.863.949.55.80.100155C
Above 15 °C0001.721.869.9136.8111.2220.900364.3C
Above 10 °C000.215.780.4188.4287.2252.695.513.70.50934.3C
Above 5 °C0.40.4461.2191335.4442.2407.3221.963.65.10.21732.7C
Above 0 °C3.56.529.9152.1335.3485.4597.2562.3369169.128.94.52743.6C
Below 0 °C462.3356.1196.133.50.90000.116.6161.5393.71620.7C
Below 5 °C614.2491.4325.292.611.7000366.2287.7544.32436.2C
Below 10 °C768.8632.4476.4197.156.13.100.326.6171.2433699.23464.1C
Below 15 °C923.8773.7631.1333.1152.434.54.613.9103.1313.5582.6854.24720.5C
Below 18 °C1016.8858.5724.1421.7231.382.424.645.3176.9405.7672.6947.25607.1C
Evaporation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Lake Evaporation (mm)00003.544.13.32.20000
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex13.710.718.728.934.044.747.247.541.127.523.011.8
Date (yyyy/dd)2003/ 072000/ 222007/ 252001/ 282006/ 232002/ 292007/ 232001/ 042000/ 162004/ 061999/ 081997/ 14
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-50-49-45-24-13-400-10-18-32-44
Date (yyyy/dd)2004/ 292003/ 242003/ 022007/ 032002/ 012009/ 061997/ 271997/ 012002/ 281997/ 252007/ 302000/ 12
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost May 20 D
Average Date of First Fall Frost Sept 25 D
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 126 Days D
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJun 11Jun 01May 26May 20May 17May 16May 06
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateSep 07Sep 14Sep 18Sep 23Sep 28Sep 30Oct 04
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days96107112123133138143

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

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