Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

RESOLUTE CARS *
NUNAVUT

* This station meets WMO standards for temperature and precipitation.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-32.0-32.4-30.2-21.8-10.30.44.52.0-4.1-13.4-22.7-27.9-15.7A
Standard Deviation2.42.82.82.82.31.51.11.51.82.93.13.31.4A
Daily Maximum (°C)-28.6-29.0-26.8-18.3-7.42.67.34.2-2.0-10.5-19.5-24.5-12.7A
Daily Minimum (°C)-35.3-35.8-33.6-25.3-13.3-1.91.7-0.3-6.1-16.4-25.9-31.3-18.6A
Extreme Maximum (°C)-0.8-3.9-2.70.06.113.918.515.39.41.6-2.8-3.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1977/ 111963/ 042010/ 281975/ 291995/ 311951/ 302008/ 111999/ 081973/ 012008/ 071947/ 102010/ 20
Extreme Minimum (°C)-52.2-52.0-51.7-42.1-29.4-16.7-3.1-9.3-20.6-37.3-42.8-46.1
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 071979/ 141956/ 161983/ 041961/ 041974/ 051982/ 211997/ 311965/ 291986/ 231967/ 211948/ 27
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.00.00.00.00.57.223.223.24.80.50.00.059.5A
Snowfall (cm)4.84.37.96.89.97.74.610.918.718.910.26.6111.2A
Precipitation (mm)4.23.97.46.78.714.628.133.822.616.09.65.7161.2A
Average Snow Depth (cm)2020212221600413182014A
Median Snow Depth (cm)2020212222500413182014A
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)2020222217101816192114A
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)0.00.00.01.28.418.022.825.115.612.20.00.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1948/ 011948/ 011948/ 012003/ 231994/ 271951/ 142009/ 221960/ 121985/ 111984/ 131947/ 011947/ 01
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)13.45.610.08.68.610.89.410.413.214.227.07.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1997/ 191995/ 061993/ 242010/ 141948/ 101990/ 091974/ 221981/ 181977/ 182003/ 062004/ 171994/ 26
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)13.44.78.98.68.619.622.826.218.214.235.07.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1997/ 191995/ 061993/ 242010/ 141948/ 101951/ 142009/ 222010/ 031978/ 162003/ 062004/ 171994/ 26
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)505354566979281236664149
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 201961/ 241995/ 231961/ 301974/ 291974/ 061964/ 011997/ 311989/ 281967/ 311960/ 151994/ 27
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C3128.2313028.96.10.033.521.830.83031272.3A
> 0 °C00002.123.93127.58.20.170092.9A
> 10 °C000000.607.62.1000010.3A
> 20 °C0000000000000A
> 30 °C0000000000000A
> 35 °C0000000000000A
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C00000.078.122.811.91.200044.1A
<= 2 °C3128.231303128.219.826.329.8313031347.4A
<= 0 °C3128.2313030.921.98.219.128.8313031321.2A
< -2 °C3128.2313030.311.80.176.625.2313031286.3A
< -10 °C3128.23129.821.40.80005.526.129.930.9234.6A
< -20 °C30.928.130244.100009.32429.4179.8A
< - 30 °C27.124.623.46.5000000.488.520.1110.7A
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm0000.030.433.91092.20.280025.7A
>= 5 mm00000.030.481.31.50.270.03003.6A
>= 10 mm000000.140.370.450.070.03001.1A
>= 25 mm0000000000000A
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm6.36.37.96.88.95.53.26.711.613.29.57.192.9A
>= 5 cm0.100.030.100.210.300.280.130.620.730.660.340.103.6A
>= 10 cm0.0300.03000.0300.030.070.100.0700.36A
>= 25 cm00000000000.0300.03A
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm5.867.86.68.67.711.413.612.813.19.26.7109.2A
>= 5 mm0.1000.070.170.270.791.62.110.520.280.107A
>= 10 mm0.0300000.170.400.520.170.100.0701.5A
>= 25 mm00000000.03000.0300.06A
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm3128.231303121.91.13.519.430.63031288.7A
>= 5 cm3128.23129.629.1130.0719.127.629.431259.9A
>= 10 cm2826.329.72827.27.30.030.284.518.925.929.1225.2A
>= 20 cm14.512.113.115.515.73000.577.111.414.9107.9A
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)18.819.419.519.419.619.519.620.723.123.321.618.820.3A
Most Frequent DirectionNWNWNWNWNWNWSENWNNNWNWNWA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)10311197113100891019691102142108
Date (yyyy/dd)1965/ 111964/ 291958/ 221964/ 291965/ 311977/ 271958/ 311986/ 241981/ 041985/ 241965/ 201964/ 10
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedNENEEESEEEEEEEE
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)138135117138119109108120107124158132
Date (yyyy/dd)1965/ 101966/ 271991/ 071964/ 291965/ 311977/ 271966/ 291987/ 311981/ 041985/ 231965/ 201964/ 10
Direction of Maximum GustNEEEEEEEEEEE
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h5.75.76.54.92.82.73.34.34.56.26.45.058.0A
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h2.62.42.31.60.90.81.11.51.62.12.71.821.4A
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C0000000000000A
Above 18 °C0000000000000A
Above 15 °C0000000000000A
Above 10 °C0000001.50.100001.6A
Above 5 °C000002.729.48.3000040.4A
Above 0 °C00000.544.6139.271.95.1000261.2A
Below 0 °C991915.7937.3653.4319.833.60.211.1127.2424.1681.4865.25,960A
Below 5 °C1,1461056.91092.3803.4474.4141.745.4102.6272.2579.1831.41020.27565.4A
Below 10 °C1,3011198.11247.3953.4629.4289.1172.4249.4422.1734.1981.41175.29352.7A
Below 15 °C1,4561339.21402.31103.4784.4439.1326404.3572.1889.11131.41330.211177.4A
Below 18 °C1,5491423.91495.31193.4877.4529.1419497.3662.1982.11221.41423.212273.1A
Soil Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Soil Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
at 5 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-17.7-19.6-20.6-19.5-15.2-1.04.72.0-0.7-5.5-10.6-14.4-9.8D
at 5 cm depth (PM obs) (°C)-17.7-19.6-20.5-19.5-15.10.27.03.8-0.5-5.5-10.7-14.4-9.4D
at 10 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-17.4-19.5-20.4-19.6-15.5-2.03.72.0-0.4-5.2-10.3-14.1-9.9D
at 10 cm depth (PM obs) (°C)-17.5-19.5-20.4-19.5-15.4-1.25.33.1-0.4-5.3-10.4-14.2-9.6D
at 20 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-17.8-19.7-20.8-20.0-16.1-3.32.51.1-1.1-5.8-10.7-14.5-10.5D
at 20 cm depth (PM obs) (°C)-17.8-19.8-20.8-19.9-16.1-2.93.41.6-1.1-5.8-10.8-14.5-10.4D
at 50 cm depth (AM obs) (°C)-14.7-16.5-17.8-17.5-14.8-5.10.71.40.5-3.1-7.7-11.1-8.8D
Evaporation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Evaporation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Lake Evaporation (mm)000003.23.31.700000
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Total Hours0.00.0132.2291.7307.9298.1299.4138.458.930.30.70.00.0
Days with measurable0.00.023.128.027.228.028.022.915.49.80.30.00.0
% of possible daylight hours0.00.037.253.641.441.440.220.814.012.43.80.00.0
Extreme Daily0.07.412.220.424.024.024.024.014.58.73.30.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1952/ 291998/ 311996/ 301958/ 241958/ 171962/ 121967/ 031988/ 091991/ 011951/ 011994/ 01
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex-0.8-3.9-2.80.05.613.519.415.08.91.4-2.8-4.1
Date (yyyy/dd)1977/ 111963/ 042010/ 281975/ 291995/ 311987/ 301962/ 181999/ 081973/ 012008/ 071955/ 032010/ 20
Days with Humidex >= 300.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Days with Humidex >= 350.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Days with Humidex >= 400.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-72-70-70-60-41-27-10-17-32-57-60-64
Date (yyyy/dd)1966/ 071979/ 131986/ 061984/ 031970/ 011974/ 011976/ 061986/ 301975/ 291986/ 231976/ 281989/ 23
Days with Wind Chill < -2030.828.030.529.417.80.20.00.03.923.429.630.6224.3A
Days with Wind Chill < -3030.728.029.923.73.60.00.00.00.19.024.329.1178.4A
Days with Wind Chill < -4027.925.925.18.90.00.00.00.00.01.412.321.9123.3A
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0000.10.30.60.70.60.40.20.10.10.3A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)64.464.565.268.68387.887.691.591.184.471.966.877.2A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)64.564.46569.681.583.580.885.888.584.271.66775.5A
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa)100.3100.5100.8101.1100.9100.6100.2100.1100.3100.5100.4100.3100.5A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)101.2101.5101.7102101.8101.4101.1101101.2101.4101.3101.2101.4A
Radiation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Radiation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Global - RF1 (MJ/m2)0412233437352413500
Date (yyyy/dd)2003/ 312001/ 282001/ 311971/ 301981/ 291968/ 261968/ 041970/ 011990/ 031964/ 041959/ 011957/ 01
Extreme Diffuse - RF2 (MJ/m2)02816242723149400
Date (yyyy/dd)2003/ 311997/ 281958/ 241991/ 302000/ 251976/ 061964/ 011965/ 031975/ 041958/ 031977/ 011957/ 01
Extreme Reflected - RF3 (MJ/m2)0291825269109300
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 311961/ 282002/ 311996/ 301968/ 281968/ 111957/ 051997/ 051994/ 051972/ 011967/ 011957/ 01
Extreme Net - RF4 (MJ/m2)1124151816115202
Date (yyyy/dd)1965/ 111965/ 231967/ 262002/ 282001/ 302002/ 101970/ 022000/ 022003/ 041983/ 071975/ 101984/ 31
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
< 1 km47.744.749.528.51940.463.382.738.445.431.225.9516.6C
1 to 9 km151.8149167.1107.4116.869.364.294.2108.3157.8141141.51468.3C
> 9 km544.5483.3527.4584.1608.3610.2616.5567.1573.4540.8547.8576.66780.1C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
0 to 2 tenths385.7329.5329.7314162.9112.5108.966.566147.6260.2349.92633.2C
3 to 7 tenths161.9151.9166.7137.9119.6123.7140.198.180.4115.2158.2162.21615.7C
8 to 10 tenths196.5195.6247.7268.1461.5483.9495579.4573.7481.3301.6231.94516.1C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost Jul 09 A
Average Date of First Fall Frost Jul 24 A
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 14 Days A

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

RESOLUTE CARS

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