Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-26.9-27.5-23.2-14.2-4.43.68.27.12.6-3.7-12.0-21.3-9.3C
Standard Deviation4.34.43.82.82.21.21.00.91.12.53.14.83.7C
Daily Maximum (°C)-22.8-23.3-18.3-9.4-1.26.812.310.55.2-1.0-8.3-17.0-5.6C
Daily Minimum (°C)-30.9-31.7-28.1-18.9-7.60.54.13.6-0.1-6.4-15.8-25.5-13.1C
Extreme Maximum (°C)3.95.74.07.213.321.726.125.517.27.35.63.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 212006/ 272005/ 111981/ 231954/ 301955/ 222003/ 291991/ 081964/ 031981/ 051952/ 192001/ 29
Extreme Minimum (°C)-45.0-45.6-44.7-34.2-26.1-10.2-2.8-2.5-12.8-27.1-36.2-43.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1953/ 241967/ 101991/ 011983/ 101949/ 021978/ 021961/ 031996/ 311965/ 301978/ 301978/ 181993/ 30
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)0.00.00.00.23.123.851.968.642.26.80.60.0197.2D
Snowfall (cm)21.721.021.631.527.69.30.00.913.229.429.723.4229.3D
Precipitation (mm)19.718.718.727.529.233.051.969.555.233.327.219.9403.7D
Average Snow Depth (cm)222526312230005151914D
Median Snow Depth (cm)212526302010005141813D
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)242830291200019202114D
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)2.52.00.55.111.728.452.848.240.423.311.90.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 211963/ 031958/ 091950/ 201986/ 141961/ 301968/ 141995/ 081979/ 011985/ 241955/ 011963/ 16
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)30.732.224.621.829.519.23.66.221.320.627.921.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 181981/ 121973/ 081973/ 071965/ 091984/ 091970/ 081981/ 291946/ 261961/ 081960/ 241951/ 03
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)30.727.423.923.927.468.052.848.240.433.527.921.8
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 181981/ 121953/ 291973/ 071965/ 092000/ 181968/ 141995/ 081979/ 012002/ 141960/ 241951/ 03
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)5774698686431315335248
Date (yyyy/dd)1977/ 151956/ 271963/ 011958/ 301958/ 011987/ 021978/ 011957/ 241992/ 291961/ 291989/ 271958/ 23
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C30.92830.62817.90.38001.216.82830.3212.2C
> 0 °C0.080.200.36213.129.6313128.814.220.68153.1C
> 10 °C000005.221.515.91.900044.4C
> 20 °C000000.041.80.2500002.1C
> 30 °C0000000000000C
> 35 °C0000000000000C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C0000.041.818.430.730.315.92.30.04099.5C
<= 2 °C3128.231303123.34.56.424.330.73031301.5C
<= 0 °C3128.2313029.211.60.290.7114.128.73031265.8C
< -2 °C3128.23129.624.83.600.045.523.729.631237.7C
< -10 °C30.827.93024.810.300007.12229.3182.4C
< -20 °C28.525.926.115.40.3800000.599.923.7130.6C
< - 30 °C19.117.814.81.30000000.619.362.8C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm00.0600.281.47.412.716.710.62.20.28051.6D
>= 5 mm00000.241.63.34.52.40.240.06012.4D
>= 10 mm00000.120.561.31.61.30.18005.1D
>= 25 mm0000000.250.250.130000.63D
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm12.211.612.713.4123.90.130.507.213.713.812.3113.5D
>= 5 cm1.20.831.22.11.70.5000.060.632.11.71.213.2D
>= 10 cm0.330.390.330.610.290.31000.380.240.440.223.5D
>= 25 cm00.0600000000000.06D
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm11.411.111.813.11210.912.515.3151413.212.2152.2C
>= 5 mm1.10.760.721.71.82.93.14.23.12.21.40.7823.6C
>= 10 mm0.200.240.160.380.381.11.11.61.80.550.260.177.9C
>= 25 mm00.040000.130.170.380.130.09000.94C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm30.928.2313029.110002.724.63031247.5D
>= 5 cm30.928.23129.927.35.5000.3314.229.131227.5D
>= 10 cm30.528.230.927.923.23.1000.055.923.430.4203.5D
>= 20 cm20.720.122.824.815.81.10000.935.113.3124.6D
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)15.915.314.916.217.114.912.613.515.417.618.616.315.7A
Most Frequent DirectionNWNWNWNWNWSESESESENWNWNWNWA
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)108120129116857280909710497111
Date (yyyy/dd)1962/ 172007/ 041960/ 291962/ 051961/ 112000/ 231958/ 151961/ 231960/ 221986/ 121957/ 101982/ 04
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedNENENWNWNWNESENWSENWNENW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)14611415615310393117109126137126141
Date (yyyy/dd)1963/ 211962/ 071960/ 291962/ 051960/ 251994/ 161958/ 141961/ 221960/ 221986/ 121957/ 101982/ 04
Direction of Maximum GustNENWNWNWNWWENWSENWNENW
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C0000000000000C
Above 18 °C0000000000000C
Above 15 °C0000000.70.100000.8C
Above 10 °C000000.717.65.6000023.8C
Above 5 °C0000016.9105.9705.7000198.6C
Above 0 °C00.100.511.4111.7257.1218.784.810.40.30695.1C
Below 0 °C834.1776.6719.3426.1148.12.8007.5125.6359.4652.84052.3C
Below 5 °C989.1917.6874.3575.6291.7583.96.378.4270.2509.1807.85,382C
Below 10 °C1144.11058.81029.3725.6446.7191.770.596.9222.7425.2659.1962.87033.4C
Below 15 °C1299.11,2001184.3875.6601.7341.1208.6246.5372.7580.2809.11117.88836.6C
Below 18 °C1392.11284.81277.3965.6694.7431.1300.9339.3462.7673.2899.11210.89931.5C
Bright Sunshine
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Bright Sunshine
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Total Hours32.494.0172.2216.5180.5200.2236.8156.887.951.435.612.61476.8D
Days with measurable12.720.226.425.625.626.627.225.620.718.413.97.6250.5D
% of possible daylight hours18.539.047.448.231.932.539.331.022.416.817.78.929.5D
Extreme Daily6.59.311.915.417.018.117.716.213.29.97.44.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1961/ 311980/ 291987/ 311988/ 301962/ 251987/ 261986/ 091991/ 031968/ 021991/ 011964/ 011962/ 01
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex3.35.24.35.113.321.727.827.618.88.64.83.4
Date (yyyy/dd)1958/ 212006/ 272005/ 111995/ 241954/ 301955/ 222001/ 281991/ 081968/ 182010/ 101985/ 252001/ 29
Days with Humidex >= 300.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Days with Humidex >= 350.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Days with Humidex >= 400.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0A
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-64-66-62-53-36-19-7-9-19-43-57-60
Date (yyyy/dd)1983/ 221979/ 162004/ 111963/ 021993/ 081978/ 031972/ 031976/ 251997/ 291978/ 311963/ 271953/ 25
Days with Wind Chill < -2030.327.728.921.74.90.00.00.00.04.218.227.2163.2A
Days with Wind Chill < -3027.525.123.510.60.40.00.00.00.00.48.620.5116.8A
Days with Wind Chill < -4018.917.712.72.50.00.00.00.00.00.01.410.663.8A
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.10.10.10.20.40.60.80.80.60.40.20.10.4A
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)65.365.667.174.881.481.682.586.386.281.577.271.576.7A
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)65.364.665.472.876.472.669.472.675.678.176.671.571.7A
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa)100.3100.6101101.3101.1100.7100.5100.4100.4100.6100.4100.4100.6A
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)100.7101.1101.5101.7101.5101.2101100.8100.9101.1100.8100.8101.1A
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
< 1 km21.622.519.311.57.13.87.96.97.65.511.313.8138.7C
1 to 9 km155149.8142.7111.49140.43947.96491.6111.1143.81187.4C
> 9 km567.5504.7582.1597.1645.9675.8697.1689.2648.5647597.6586.47438.9C
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
0 to 2 tenths282256.6280.7232.9101.4114.712388.27797.6161253.42068.6C
3 to 7 tenths144.2139.6130.4113.8105.2124.6182.2148.910596.8101.6140.91533.1C
8 to 10 tenths317.9280.8332.8373.4537.4480.7438.8506.9538549.6457.4349.85163.3C
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost Jun 20 C
Average Date of First Fall Frost Sept 03 C
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 74 Days C
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data (Frost-Free)
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateJul 12Jul 06Jul 02Jun 23Jun 18Jun 14Jun 13
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateAug 11Aug 23Aug 27Sep 01Sep 05Sep 09Sep 15
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days43515965727891

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

IQALUIT A

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