Canadian Climate Normals 1981-2010 Station Data

Temperature and Precipitation Graph
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Normals Data

The minimum number of years used to calculate these Normals is indicated by a code for each element. A "+" beside an extreme date indicates that this date is the first occurrence of the extreme value. Values and dates in bold indicate all-time extremes for the location.

Data used in the calculation of these Normals may be subject to further quality assurance checks. This may result in minor changes to some values presented here.

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Normals Station Data
(all elements)
Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Daily Average (°C)-5.8-5.6-0.46.713.018.621.220.215.78.93.1-2.97.7C
Standard Deviation3.12.32.01.71.81.31.41.41.41.51.62.71.1C
Daily Maximum (°C)-1.5-0.94.512.119.124.627.126.021.514.17.20.912.9C
Daily Minimum (°C)-10.1-10.2-5.31.26.812.615.214.39.93.6-1.1-6.82.5C
Extreme Maximum (°C)14.914.926.031.734.636.637.237.834.431.022.118.0
Date (yyyy/dd)2005/ 132000/ 271998/ 301990/ 262006/ 291995/ 191988/ 072001/ 082002/ 092007/ 081999/ 092001/ 06
Extreme Minimum (°C)-35.2-25.7-25.6-10.6-2.11.96.94.2-2.0-7.4-15.0-26.0
Date (yyyy/dd)1994/ 161987/ 152003/ 032003/ 061996/ 021986/ 031988/ 031986/ 291989/ 271988/ 311987/ 212004/ 20
Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Rainfall (mm)26.022.933.666.779.582.878.876.281.866.768.334.2717.4C
Snowfall (cm)38.929.919.37.50.10.00.00.00.00.612.134.2142.6C
Precipitation (mm)62.150.553.274.179.682.879.076.281.868.080.065.7852.9C
Average Snow Depth (cm)9940000000142C
Median Snow Depth (cm)8930000000032C
Snow Depth at Month-end (cm)12610000000052C
Extreme Daily Rainfall (mm)40.436.338.045.164.641.642.871.280.343.043.730.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 151990/ 221991/ 272009/ 032000/ 122000/ 132009/ 231986/ 151986/ 101995/ 051993/ 272006/ 01
Extreme Daily Snowfall (cm)37.423.822.019.21.80.00.00.00.06.418.533.5
Date (yyyy/dd)1999/ 032001/ 081999/ 062009/ 062005/ 021986/ 011986/ 011986/ 011986/ 011997/ 271987/ 252000/ 12
Extreme Daily Precipitation (mm)40.436.338.045.164.641.642.871.280.343.043.742.6
Date (yyyy/dd)1995/ 151990/ 221991/ 272009/ 032000/ 122000/ 132009/ 231986/ 151986/ 101995/ 051993/ 271990/ 03
Extreme Snow Depth (cm)574544160000017043
Date (yyyy/dd)1999/ 162001/ 092008/ 091994/ 071986/ 231986/ 011986/ 011986/ 011986/ 012008/ 291986/ 231992/ 12
Days with Maximum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Maximum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
<= 0 °C17.815.37.30.58000000212.855.9C
> 0 °C13.21323.729.43130313130312818.2309.4C
> 10 °C0.780.546.318.729.930313129.9248.21.2211.4C
> 20 °C000.70312.324.630.329.518.74.10.160123.3C
> 30 °C0000.130.79474.30.840.040017C
> 35 °C000000.200.600.3200001.1C
Days with Minimum Temperature
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Minimum Temperature
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
> 0 °C2.415.117.529.530313129.62412.23.3216.7C
<= 2 °C30.328.228.518.24.50.0400111.922.930175.5C
<= 0 °C28.627.225.912.51.50000.40717.827.7148.5C
< -2 °C2625.321.26.60.0400002.411.823116.3C
< -10 °C14.814.26.40.080000001.18.545C
< -20 °C3.41.80.26000000000.646.1C
< - 30 °C0.09000000000000.09C
Days with Rainfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Rainfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm5.83.86.710.81211.811.29.910.81311.36.6113.7C
>= 5 mm1.81.52.34.84.95.354.44.74.43.82.545.4C
>= 10 mm0.710.791.11.92.73.12.82.62.822.41.124C
>= 25 mm0.080.170.090.290.630.480.680.520.640.240.320.124.3C
Days With Snowfall
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days With Snowfall
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 cm13.410.872.90.1300000.484.710.850.2C
>= 5 cm2.520.960.42000000.040.681.88.3C
>= 10 cm0.790.500.430.170000000.240.642.8C
>= 25 cm0.0400000000000.120.16C
Days with Precipitation
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Precipitation
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 0.2 mm16.712.91212.31211.811.29.910.813.214.515.3152.7C
>= 5 mm4.33.33.45.34.95.354.44.74.54.6453.5C
>= 10 mm1.51.21.62.22.73.12.82.62.82.12.71.927.2C
>= 25 mm0.130.170.090.330.630.480.680.520.640.240.400.284.6C
Days with Snow Depth
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Days with Snow Depth
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
>= 1 cm21.322.7111000000.042.815.874.6C
>= 5 cm16.217.76.80.430000001.18.450.6C
>= 10 cm1111.33.90.170000000.584.731.6C
>= 20 cm4.63.91.100000000.041.811.4C
Wind
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Speed (km/h)14.013.913.813.912.311.410.710.010.611.612.913.412.4C
Most Frequent DirectionSWWNWNWNWNWNWNNWWWNWC
Maximum Hourly Speed (km/h)656567565750655652568054
Date (yyyy/dd)1989/ 081987/ 081991/ 281995/ 042010/ 081988/ 051999/ 241992/ 101989/ 231996/ 301991/ 301991/ 15
Direction of Maximum Hourly SpeedWNWSWNWNWNWNWNWNWSWSWW
Maximum Gust Speed (km/h)11110011189871111351028310411193
Date (yyyy/dd)1992/ 141997/ 272002/ 092001/ 121990/ 171986/ 161995/ 151987/ 162000/ 201999/ 131991/ 301991/ 14
Direction of Maximum GustNSWSSSWWNWWNWNWSWW
Days with Winds >= 52 km/h0.80.90.90.60.40.40.20.30.20.40.90.66.7C
Days with Winds >= 63 km/h0.20.20.30.10.00.20.10.10.00.20.40.11.9C
Degree Days
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Degree Days
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Above 24 °C00000.34.111.96.40.800023.5C
Above 18 °C0001.313.256.2104.482.521.81.100280.5C
Above 15 °C000.34.433.6119.3191.7161.960.55.800577.5C
Above 10 °C0.102.722.8112259346.2315.6175.338.63.50.21275.9C
Above 5 °C20.617.686.9248.3408.8501.2470.6320.9130.8303.42220.9C
Above 0 °C1711.268.3209.2402.7558.8656.2625.6470.9275.5111.927.93435.2C
Below 0 °C196.6168.476.64.6000000.219.4118.6584.2C
Below 5 °C336.5299180.932.20.5000010.487.52491196.2C
Below 10 °C489.6439.7321118.219.30.2004.473.2211400.82077.5C
Below 15 °C644.5581473.6249.895.810.60.41.339.6195.5357.6555.63205.3C
Below 18 °C737.5665.7566.3336.7168.537.46.21590.9283.7447.5648.64,004C
Humidex
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidex
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Humidex16.014.429.235.741.044.650.947.443.637.824.920.6
Date (yyyy/dd)2005/ 132000/ 271998/ 301990/ 252006/ 291994/ 151995/ 142006/ 011991/ 162007/ 081990/ 031998/ 07
Days with Humidex >= 300.00.00.00.43.510.117.114.55.40.60.00.051.6C
Days with Humidex >= 350.00.00.00.10.74.37.65.81.20.10.00.019.8C
Days with Humidex >= 400.00.00.00.00.10.72.21.30.10.00.00.04.4C
Wind Chill
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Wind Chill
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Extreme Wind Chill-43-37-36-19-4000-4-9-24-37
Date (yyyy/dd)1994/ 161995/ 052003/ 031995/ 052004/ 041986/ 011986/ 011986/ 011989/ 271988/ 311987/ 211989/ 22
Days with Wind Chill < -209.37.92.40.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.14.023.7C
Days with Wind Chill < -301.80.50.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.32.8C
Days with Wind Chill < -400.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.1C
Humidity
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Humidity
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Vapour Pressure (kPa)0.40.30.50.711.51.71.71.40.90.60.40.9C
Average Relative Humidity - 0600LST (%)79.677.677.276.177.979.382.587.489.687.685.182.181.8C
Average Relative Humidity - 1500LST (%)69.66457.852.952.353.953.455.959.262.468.971.160.1C
Pressure
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Pressure
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
Average Station Pressure (kPa)99.299.399.399.199.199.199.199.399.399.399.399.399.2C
Average Sea Level Pressure (kPa)101.7101.7101.7101.5101.5101.4101.4101.6101.7101.7101.7101.7101.6C
Visibility (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Visibility (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
< 1 km16.21211.16.27.25.82.41.85.47.412.413.6101.5D
1 to 9 km150.6116.796.780.661.771.372.377.479.480.4103.8126.91117.7D
> 9 km577.2550.2636.2633.2675.1642.9669.4664.9635.3656.2603.7603.57547.6D
Cloud Amount (hours with)
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Cloud Amount (hours with)
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Code
0 to 2 tenths132.4152.6216186.2209.8192.6199.7240.7236.5176.9117.1120.22180.6D
3 to 7 tenths101.6109.8128.2129.5162.3197.6231.5213.8167150.8124.4101.31817.7D
8 to 10 tenths510416.5399.8404.3371.9329.8312.9289.6316.5416.3478.5522.54768.5D
Frost-Free
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Date/Days Code
Average Date of Last Spring Frost May 05 C
Average Date of First Fall Frost Oct 10 C
Average Length of Frost-Free Period 157 Days C
1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals station data
Frost-Free
Probability of last temperature in spring of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateMay 18May 11May 09May 05May 02Apr 29Apr 25
Probability of first temperature in fall of 0 °C or lower on or after indicated dates10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
DateSep 25Oct 01Oct 03Oct 10Oct 15Oct 21Oct 27
Probability of frost-free period equal to or less than indicated period (Days)10%25%33%50%66%75%90%
Days139146148157160166181

Legend

  • A = WMO "3 and 5 rule" (i.e. no more than 3 consecutive and no more than 5 total missing for either temperature or precipitation)
  • B = At least 25 years
  • C = At least 20 years
  • D = At least 15 years
Station / Element Metadata

Statistics listed below are provided as a guide to determine the validity of Normals and Extremes calculations. For example, a station with 30 years of record between 1981 and 2010 with no missing years would be a more reliable normal than a station with 15 years of record and 2 missing years. Less than 100% possible observations indicates that out of the total number of observations used, some records were missing.

TORONTO BUTTONVILLE A

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